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Custom firmware for the YQ8003 bicycle spoke light
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README.md

bSpokeLight -- custom firmware for LED spoke lights

This project provides an alternative firmware for LED spoke lights. Currently, only the model YQ8003 (128 LEDs) is supported.

What is the YQ8003?

See here

Why a new firmware?

The advantage of this code over the official one is:

  • Adjustment for the magnet position, so that the displayed images are not rotated.
  • Adjustment for the width of the hub. With wide hubs, the original software produces a flickering effect with two copies of the picture overlaying each other.
  • More convenient loading of pictures. The official software works only on Windows, and is very crappy to use. Our software works on all operating systems, and is simple to use: Just give it a list of images and display durations. It even understands animated gifs.

Some features that are missing compared to the original version (but could be added):

  • An animation that looks nice when the bike is stationary and the wheel is not turning.
  • Automatic shut-off.

How do I use it?

Once you installed it (see below), you run

$ bSpokeLight --output my-firmware.bin image1.png 10 image2.png 10

to create the firmware my-firmware.bin which will display image1.png for 10 seconds and image2.png for 20 seconds. You can (currently) specify up to 8 images.

The images should be quadratic (otherwise they will be deformed), and ideally use only the eight colors black, white, red, green, blue, yellow, magenta, cyan.

To load the firmware onto your wheel, use any STC ISP flash tool, such as stcgal:

../path/to/stcgal.py my-firmware.bin

If this does not work right away, try to run stcgal.py directly after you plug it in, e.g. using

while ! test -e /dev/ttyUSB0; do true; done; ../path/to/stcgal.py my-firmware.bin

Calibrating your wheel

Look at the wheel from the left side. Where is the magnet? Picture the hour arm of a clock pointing that direction. Which hour is that (e.g. 10)? Pass this number as the rotation.

Now rotate the wheel so that the LED strip is horizontal, and the end with the white sensor is on the left. How far is the strip above the center of the hub? Measure this number in “LEDs”, i.e. using another strip. Pass this number as the offset. If the LED strip is actually below the hub, then the number is negative.

Usually the middle piece of the strip is directly above or below the hub; in that case, you can ignore this paragraph. But otherwise, you need a shift. Measure how far the center of the strip is to the left of the hub. Pass this number as the shift. If the strip is actually shifted to the right, then the number is negative.

You pass these parameters when creating your firmware, for example (with a very wide hub, and no shift):

$ bSpokeLight --offset 7 --rotation 10.5 --output my-firmware.bin …

Which parts are visible?

Do you want to draw a picture, and want to know which parts are visible, given your hub size? The command

$ bSpokeLight --offset 7 --rotation 10.5 --gen-mask --output mask.png

creates a square-size picture with white dots where you will have LEDs. It also give you an idea of the available resolution.

Installation

Ready-built binaries for Linux and Windows can be found on https://github.com/nomeata/bSpokeLight/releases

Building from source

  1. If you have not done so yet, fetch the source code and change to the directory containing the code:

    git clone https://github.com/nomeata/bSpokeLight
    cd bSpokeLight
    
  2. Install the nix tool, if you do not have it yet:

    bash <(curl https://nixos.org/nix/install)
    
  3. (Optional, but saves building time:) Install the Cachix tool, and enable the tttool cache (I am sharing the cache with an unrelated project of mine).

    nix-env -iA cachix -f https://cachix.org/api/v1/install
    cachix use tttool
    
  4. Build bSpokeLight:

    nix-build nix -A linux-exe
    

    The first time this can take a long time. Run it over night.

  5. Copy the resulting program to the current directory:

    cp result/bin/bSpokeLight .
    
  6. At this point, bSpokeLight should be ready to go. If you run

    ./bSpokeLight
    

    you should see a help output.

If you have any problems, you can report an issue via GitHub.

Docker Container

A simpler way of building this on Linux is to use a Docker container:

  1. To build:

     docker build -t bspoke .
    
  2. To run:

     docker run --rm -it -v $PWD:/home bspoke bSpokeLight \
         -o fw.bin imgs/star.png 10
    
  3. To develop:

     docker run --rm -it -v $PWD:/home bspoke bash
    

Hacking on bSpokeLight

This is what I learned about the YQ8003 hardware:

  • The microcontroller is a STC12LE5A60S2 with 22MHz and 60KB of RAM. Data sheet

    It is 8051 compatible, so a lot of generic information on how to program this microcontroller is online.

  • The magnet triggers external interrupt 0.

  • The LEDs are controlled as follows:

    • P3_4 = 0 enables the lights.
    • The 8 bits of P1 indicate which groups of LEDs are addressed. Bits 0,1,2,3 address the groups on the arm with the buttons, counted from the middle, while bits 7,6,5,4 address the groups on the arm with the sensor, again from the middle.
    • P2, negated, actually sets the LEDs of all addressed groups, with bit 0 addressing the LEDs further out and bit 0 the one closest to the middle.
    • All LEDs always share the same color. P3_5 = 0 is green, P3_6 = 0 is red and P3_7 = 0 is blue. At most one of these pins should be set to zero at a time.

Of course the actual firmware code expects the images in a particular format, and the bSpokeLight program injects the images into the binary; see the code for my choices there.

Can it support other spoke lights?

Maybe, if the they are similar enough. Talk to me!

Contact

Please reports bugs and missing features at the GitHub bugtracker. This is also where you can find the source code.

bSpokeLight was written by Joachim Breitner and is licensed under a permissive MIT license.

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