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Avalon - a classical/quantum programming language [Accepted!]

This proposal to the unitary fund is for exploring the creation of a classical/quantum programming language.
The Avalon Programming Language is a working programming language that allows the creation of qubits and the application of quantum gates to those qubits.
In seeking funding, it is my goal to port the existing interpreter to QUIL since as an instruction set architecture it is the closest that Avalon will get to compile for real hardware in the near future.
The larger programming community benefits by having a programming language similar to Python in syntax and to Haskell in semantics (up to a certain level : algebraic data types).


Programming quantum computers currently requires the use of SDKs largely written in Python.
While this is convinient for immediate prototyping, it doesn't lend itself for programming in the large.
Microsoft has made excellent work with Q# but it requires linking with a C# program to act as driver.
In one language, Avalon provides both the classical components as well as quantum constructs.

As of this writing, Avalon allows the creation of 1-Qubit quantum gates and controlled gates parametrized by 1-Qubit gates. Qubit data types have a one-to-one correspondance with bit types which is excellent since when generating QUIL code, I can focus on those two data types to get started.

The Avalon programming language is a statically typed language with type inference where it is possible to deduce the complete type of a value else the type must be provided (such as using the None value constructor). It is based on algebraic data types with pattern matching to deconstruct values. Unlike Haskell, Avalon doesn't offer referential transparency. Except for select data types, the values contained in variables can be changed.

The syntax is close to that of Python while the declaration of type constructors is close to that of Haskell in syntax.
This should make the language easier on newcomers to get acquainted with.

Objective in creating the language

While SDKs are certainly useful is their own right in offering an interface where no languages are available, having a fully-featured language that directly targets the stack of interest is most certainly preferable since it offers a clear syntax, predictable semantics that are made visible by the syntax and enforced by the compiler (e.g. in Avalon, a variable containing qubits cannot be an r-value to an assignment expression in keeping with the no-cloning theorem).

And the most important aspect of preferring a fully featured programming language over an SDK is the ease of learning for users already familiar with similar languages.
And that is the primary objective of Avalon: make quantum computers programming accessible to the regular developer.

Let us also note in passing that even though there are quite a few quantum programming languages out there, it has been my unfortunate experience that all many seem to offer is syntax while still exposing the underlying hardware primitives. Many simply lack sufficient abstractions that make using the language a pleasant experience for the developer.

Paving the way to finding better abstractions that make quantum computers programming easier and pleasant to developers is the primary goal in creating Avalon.

It goes without saying that higher-level programming languages are much easier to work with than assembly code.

Features to be ported to the Rigetti stack

Currently, the language offers many native types: qubits, bits, integers, double-precision floating point numbers, strings, tuples, lists and maps.
If we consider the Rigetti 8Q-Agave quantum processor with 8 qubits as a reasonable target for code generation, a lot of the native data types would not fit into available registers.
Therefore, as initial native data types, only qubits, bits and integers will be ported.

The language also offers the possiblity to create user data types (even generic ones) and considering that the whole generated program is to run on the Rigetti stack, it is not wise to enable this feature at the moment.

Avalon functions can also be parametrized (as in Haskell) and they even have a feature we call extended overloading where two functions with the same names and parameters can have different return types. Depending on what I am able to accomplish (efficiently) with the Rigetti stack, some of those features may be disabled.


In 4 months, users on Linux systems will be able to generate QUIL code and run it on the Rigetti stack. They can already test the interpreter as of this writing.
The 4 months will be used as follow:

  • 1 month to port native data types
  • 2 months to port function declarations and variable declarations.
  • 1 month to write tutorials. The reference documentation is 80% done and can be found at Avalon documentation.


What exactly are the semantics of quantum constructs in a high-level programming language?
At the moment, here are the existing semantics and the questions they raise where applicable:

  • Variables initialized with qubits cannot modified later.
  • A variable with qubits cannot be used as an r-value of an assignment (this in keeping with no-cloning).
  • References to qubits cannot be dereferenced (also in keeping with no-cloning).
  • A variable with qubits cannot be passed by value to a function only by reference. This restriction exists as well to enforce the no-cloning theorem but also the language semantics. A quantum variable simply initializes a quantum register with specific data. To work with that data, we use references since it is external data. But the user might ask: why then not declare the quantum variable as a reference to begin with qubits (a la C++ constant reference to temporary)?
  • Qubits can not be used in value constructors nor can they parametrize generic type constructors (such as the maybe(a) type). This restriction exists to simplify things but if we were to lift it, how do we manage the memory layout of value constructors?
  • Only 1-Qubit gates and controlled gates of 1-Qubit gates can be created by the user. All other gates can derive from those. As is often said, a language cannot be made more powerful by reducing the number of features it offers. Is there wisdom in allowing the creation of arbitrary (unitary) gates as QUIL allows?
  • All bit and qubit types are static in the sense that their size is fixed at compile time. How do we evolve this without having a noodle soup of data types? Are refinement types the answer? What is the amount of work required to make that a reality? Shall we go all the way to dependent types?
  • The language strives to limit the number possible runtime errors (no allowance of undefined behavior for instance) through the type system, how do we use this to disallow the application of unitary gates on a qubit after it has been measured?

Here is what is missing but is absolutely important to make the language more useful:

  • Multi-qubits types are not currently indexable. This is important in order allow applying controlled gates to the same variable, for instance, without splitting a single variable into 1-Qubit variables. What are the semantics of indexing?

Post-completion of the project

Understanding the semantics of quantum types and functions that work on them is of interest.
Publishing a paper that details the decisions that guided the semantics of Avalon is not without merit and something I look forward to doing at the end of the project.


Please find below two programs to perform the teleportation of a single qubit.

Avalon sample

Please note how easy it is to follow the program's logic. This level of clarity is what is guiding the design of the language and the move from low-level code or SDKs.

import io
import quant

def __main__ = (val args : [string]) -> void:
    -- initialize quantum variables
    val source = 0q1,
        destination = 0q0,
        ancilla = 0q0

    -- create an entanglement between the destination and the ancilla
    Quant.had(ref destination) destination, ref ancilla)

    -- perform the teleportation source, ref ancilla)
    Quant.had(ref source)

    -- measure the source and the ancilla
    var source_bit = cast(ref source) -> bit,
        ancilla_bit = cast(ref ancilla) -> bit

    -- perform error correction on the destination
    if source_bit == 0b1:
        Quant.pz(ref destination)
    if ancilla_bit == 0b1:
        Quant.px(ref destination)

    -- measure and print the destination which should contain <0q1>
    var destination_bit = cast(ref destination) -> bit


QUIL Python SDK sample

The use of the SDK makes it easy to create quick prototypes but resists scaling to larger programs.
Moreover, since the hardware primitives are exposed, following the program's logic gets harder even for relatively simple programs.

Adapted from <>
from pyquil.quil import Program
from pyquil import api
from pyquil.gates import X, Z, H, CNOT

if __name__ == '__main__':
    qvm = api.QVMConnection()

    # initialize qubit 0 in |1>
    program = Program(X(0))

    # declare classical memory
    ro = program.declare('ro')

    # declare addresses for quantum data
    source = 0
    destination = 2
    ancilla = 1

    # create an entanglement between the destination and the ancilla
    program.inst(CNOT(destination, ancilla))

    # do the teleportation
    program.inst(CNOT(source, ancilla))

    # measure the results and store them in classical registers [0] and [1]
    program.measure(source, ro[0])
    program.measure(ancilla, ro[1])

    # perform error correction
    program.if_then(ro[1], X(destination))
    program.if_then(ro[0], Z(destination))

    # measure the destination
    program.measure(destination, ro[2])

    # print some useful result
    print("Teleporting |1> state: {}".format(, [2])))


The proposal has been accepted and the same is reflected on the unitary fund website. Thanks to Dr Will J. Zeng et al. for running the fund, effectively helping push quantum computing forward.


Quil Instruction Set Architecture
Avalon Programming Language


My new proposal to the unitary fund [Accepted].




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