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Easy to use C3D reader/writer in C++, Python and Matlab
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README.md

EZC3D

EZC3D is an easy to use reader, modifier and writer for C3D format files. It is written en C++ with proper binders for Python and MATLAB scripting langages.

C3D (http://c3d.org) is a format specifically designed to store biomechanics data. Hence many biomechanics softwares can produce C3D files in order to share data. However, there is a lack in the biomechanics community of an easy to use, free and open source library to read, modify and write them as needed when it gets to the data analysis. There was at some point the BTK project (https://github.com/Biomechanical-ToolKit/BTKCore) that was targeting this goal, but the project is now obsolete.

EZC3D addresses these issues. It offers a comprehensive and light API to read and write C3D files. The source code is written in C++ allowing to be compiled and used by higher level langages thanks to SWIG (http://www.swig.org/). Still, proper interface are written on top of the SWIG binder in order to facilitate the experience of the coders in their respective langages.

So, without further ado, let's begin C3Ding!

How to install

There are two main ways to install EZC3D on your computer: installing the binaries from Anaconda (easiest) or compiling the source code yourself (more versatile and up to date).

Anaconda (For Windows, Linux and Mac)

The easiest way to install EZC3D is to download the binaries from anaconda (https://anaconda.org/) repositories (binaries are not available though for MATLAB). The project is hosted on the conda-forge channel (https://anaconda.org/conda-forge/ezc3d).

After having installed properly an anaconda client [my suggestion would be Miniconda (https://conda.io/miniconda.html)] and loaded the desired environment to install EZC3D in, just type the following command:

conda install -c conda-forge ezc3d

The binaries and includes of the core of EZC3D will be installed in bin and include folders of the environment respectively. Moreover, the Python3 binder will also be installed in the environment.

The current building status for Anaconda release is as follow.

Name Downloads Version Platforms
Conda Recipe Conda Downloads Conda Version Conda Platforms

Compiling (For Windows, Linux and Mac)

The main drawback with downloading the pre-compiled version from Anaconda is that it may be out-of-date. Moreover, since it is already compiled, it doesn't allow you to modify EZC3D if you need it. Therefore, a more versatile way to enjoy EZC3D is to compile it by yourself.

The building status for the current EZC3D branches is as follow

Name Status
Stable Build Status
dev Build Status

Dependencies

EZC3D doesn't require any external dependency to compile. However, if ones is interested in developping EZC3D, the googletest suite is required to test your modifications. Fortunately, the CMake should download and compile the test suite for you!

CMake

EZC3D comes with a CMake (https://cmake.org/) project. If you don't know how to use CMake, you will find many examples via Internet. The main variables to set are:

That said, the Python3 interface requires numpy (https://numpy.org/) and SWIG (http://www.swig.org/) to compile EZC3D. One could easily install these dependencies from Anaconda using the following command:

conda install -c conda-forge numpy swig

or directly from their respective websites.

Finally, the MATLAB interface requires MATLAB to be installed.

CMake

EZC3D comes in the form of a CMake (https://cmake.org/) project. If you don't know how to use CMake, you will find many examples on Internet. The main variables to set are:

CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX Which is the path/to/install EZC3D in. If you compile the Python3 binder, a valid installation of Python with Numpy should be installed relatived to this path.

BUILD_SHARED_LIBS If you wan to build EZC3D in a shared TRUE or static FALSE library manner. Default is TRUE.

CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE Which type of build you want. Options are Debug, RelWithDebInfo, MinSizeRel or Release. This is relevant only for the build done using the make command. Please note that you may experience a slow EZC3D library if you compile it without any optimization (i.e. Debug) especially on Windows.

BUILD_EXAMPLE If you want (TRUE) or not (FALSE) to build the C++ example. Default is TRUE.

BUILD_TESTS If you want ON or not OFF to build the tests of the project. Please note that this will automatically download gtest (https://github.com/google/googletest). Default is OFF.

BUILD_DOC If you want (ON) or not (OFF) to build the documentation of the project. Default is OFF.

BINDER_PYTHON3 If you want (ON) or not (OFF) to build the Python binder. Default is OFF.

Python3_EXECUTABLE If BINDER_PYTHON3 is set to ON then this variable should point to the Python executable. This python should have SWIG and Numpy installed with it. This variable should be found automatically, but Anaconda finds the base prior to the actual environment, so one should gives attention to that particular variable.

SWIG_EXECUTABLE If BINDER_PYTHON3 is set to ON then this variable should point to the SWIG executable. This variable will be found automatically if Python3_EXECUTABLE is properly set.

BINDER_MATLAB If you want (ON) or not (OFF) to build the MATLAB binder. Default is OFF.

MATLAB_ROOT_DIR If BINDER_MATLAB is set to ON then this variable should point to the root path of MATLAB directory. Please note that the MATLAB binder is based on MATLAB R2018a API and won't compile on earlier versions. This variable should be found automatically, except on Mac where the value should manually be set to the MATLAB in the App folder.

MATLAB_ezc3d_INSTALL_DIR If BINDER_MATLAB is set to ON then this variable should point to the path where you want to install EZC3D. Typically, this is {MY DOCUMENTS}/MATLAB. The default value is the toolbox folder of MATLAB. Please note that if you leave the default value, you will probably need to grant administrator rights to the installer.

How to use

The aim of EZC3D is to be, indeed, eazy to use. Still, it is a C++ library and therefore requires some time to adapt. This section aims to help you level up as fast as possible, in order to enjoy EZC3D as fast as possible.

There are example codes for C++, Python3 and MATLAB in the folder example that can be used as template to perform all the day-to-day tasks. Moreover, the test files in the tests folder can also be very useful.

The C++ API

The core code is written in C++, meaning that you can fully create from scratch, read and write C3D from C++. The informations that follows is a basic guide that should allow you to perform everything you want to do.

Create an empty yet valid C3D structure

To create a new valid yet empty C3D, just call the c3d class without parameter.

ezc3d::c3d c3d;

Read a C3D

To read a C3D file you simply have to call the c3d class with a path

ezc3d::c3d c3d("path/to/c3d.c3d");

Please note that on Windows, the path must be / or \\ separated (and not only\), for obvious reasons.

Write a C3D

A c3d class is able to write itself to a file using the method write

ezc3d::c3d c3d;
c3d.write("path_to_c3d.c3d")

Navigating through the C3D class

The C3D class mimics the C3D structures as defined by the standard, that is separated into a header, a parameters and a data class. You can get a const-reference to these classes by simply calling their names (see below for more specific examples)

Get a value from the header

To retrieve some information from the header, just call the header class and then the specific information you are interested in. If for example, you want to get the frame rate of the cameras, you should do as follow:

ezc3d::c3d c3d("path_to_c3d.c3d");
float pointRate(c3d.header().frameRate());

Please note that the names mimics those used by the C3D format as described by the c3d.org documentation. For more information on what you can get from the header, please refer to the documentation on header.

Set a value to the header

It is not possible from outside to add, remove or even modify the header directly. The reason for that is that the header has a very specific formatting to be compliant to the standard. Therefore, the header will update itself if needed when the parameters class is modify. If it doesn't this is a bug that should be reported.

Get a parameter

Parameters in C3D are arranged in a GROUP:PAMETER manner and the classes in EZC3D mimic this arrangement. Therefore a particular parameter always stands inside of a group. For example, if you are interested in the labels of the points, you can navigate up to the POINT group and then to the LABELS parameter.

ezc3d::c3d c3d;
std::vector<std::string> point_labels(c3d.parameters().group("POINT").parameter("LABELS").valuesAsString());
for (size_t m = 0; m < point_labels.size(); ++m){
  std::cout << point_labels[m] << std::endl;
}

For more information on what you can get from the parameters, please refer to the documentation on parameters.

Set a parameter

To set a parameter into a group, you must call the accessor method provided into the c3d class. The first parameter of the function is the name of the group to set the new parameter in, and the second parameter of the function is the actual parameter to set.

ezc3d::c3d c3d;
ezc3d::ParametersNS::GroupNS::Parameter param("name_of_my_new_parameter"); // Create a new parameter
param.set(2.0); // Give a value to the parameter
c3d.parameter("GroupName", param); // Add the parameter to the c3d structure

Please note that if this parameter already exist in the group named "GroupName", then this parameter is replaced by the new one. Otherwise, if it doesn't exist or the group doesn't exist, then it is added to the group or the group is created then the parameter is added. For more information on how to set a new parameter from c3d accessors methods, please refer to the documentation on c3d.

Get data

Point and analogous data are the core of the C3D file. To understand the structure though it is essential to understand that everything is based on points. For example, the base frame rate the point frame rate, while the analogous data is based on the number of data per point frame. Therefore to get a particular point in time, you must get the data at a certain frame and specify which point you are interested in, while to get a particular analogous data you must also specify the subframe.

ezc3d::c3d c3d("path_to_c3d.c3d");
ezc3d::DataNS::Points3dNS::Point pt(new_c3d.c3d.data().frame(f).points().point(0));
pt.print();
ezc3d::DataNS::AnalogsNS::Channel channel(new_c3d.c3d.data().frame(0).analogs().subframe(0).channel("channel1"));
channel.print();

For more information on what you can get from the points, please refer to the documentation on points or analogs.

Set data

There are two ways to add data to the data set.

Using the c3d accessor

The first and prefered way is to add a frame via the accessors method of the class c3d. The parameter to send is the filled frame to add/replace to the data structure. Please note that the points and channel must have been declare to the parameters before adding them to the data set. This is so the whole c3d structure is properly harmonized. Please also note, for the same reason, that POINT:RATE and ANALOG:RATE must have been declared before adding points and analogs. Here is a full example that creates a new C3D, add points and analogs and print it to the console.

// Create an empyt c3d
ezc3d::c3d c3d_empty;

// Declare rates
ezc3d::ParametersNS::GroupNS::Parameter pointRate("RATE");
pointRate.set(std::vector<float>() = {100}, {1});
c3d_empty.parameter("POINT", pointRate);

ezc3d::ParametersNS::GroupNS::Parameter analogRate("RATE");
analogRate.set(std::vector<float>() = {1000}, {1});
c3d_empty.parameter("ANALOG", analogRate);

// Declare the points and channels to the c3d
c3d_empty.point("new_marker1"); // Add empty
c3d_empty.point("new_marker2"); // Add empty
c3d_empty.analog("new_analog1"); // add the empty
c3d_empty.analog("new_analog2"); // add the empty

// Fill them with some random values
ezc3d::DataNS::Frame f;
std::vector<std::string>labels(c3d_empty.parameters().group("POINT").parameter("LABELS").valuesAsString());
int nPoints(c3d_empty.parameters().group("POINT").parameter("USED").valuesAsInt()[0]);
ezc3d::DataNS::Points3dNS::Points pts;
for (size_t i=0; i<static_cast<size_t>(nPoints); ++i){
    ezc3d::DataNS::Points3dNS::Point pt;
    pt.name(labels[i]);
    pt.x(1.0);
    pt.y(2.0);
    pt.z(3.0);
    pts.point(pt);
}
ezc3d::DataNS::AnalogsNS::Analogs analog;
ezc3d::DataNS::AnalogsNS::SubFrame subframe;
for (size_t i=0; i < c3d_empty.header().nbAnalogs(); ++i){
    ezc3d::DataNS::AnalogsNS::Channel c;
    c.data(i+1);
    subframe.channel(c);
}
for (size_t i=0; i < c3d_empty.header().nbAnalogByFrame(); ++i)
    analog.subframe(subframe);
    
// add them to the data set
f.add(pts, analog);
c3d_empty.frame(f);
c3d_empty.frame(f); // Why not adding a second frame?

// Print them to the console
c3d_empty.print();

For more information on how to set data from c3d accessors methods, please refer to the documentation on c3d.

Using the "non-const" reference

The second method is more designed for internal purpose. However, you may find yourself in situation where the normal method is just to long or restrictive for what you want to do. Then you can access directly the data via a reference. For example, you can add channels that way:

// Add a new analog to the c3d (one filled with zeros, the other one with data)
ezc3d::c3d c3d;

// Add a analog rate
ezc3d::ParametersNS::GroupNS::Parameter analog_rate("RATE");
analog_rate.set(1000.0);
c3d.parameter("ANALOG", analog_rate);

c3d.analog("new_analog1"); // Declare an empty channel (Note the name will be overriden)
std::vector<ezc3d::DataNS::Frame> frames_analog;
ezc3d::DataNS::Frame frame;
// Fill the frame
for (size_t sf = 0; sf < c3d.header().nbAnalogByFrame(); ++sf){
    ezc3d::DataNS::AnalogsNS::Channel newChannel;
    newChannel.data(sf+100);
    ezc3d::DataNS::AnalogsNS::SubFrame subframes_analog;
    subframes_analog.channel(newChannel);
    frame.analogs().subframe(subframes_analog); // The non-const reference makes it easier to add the subframe
}
c3d.frame(frame);

// Print it
c3d.print();

Please note that this method by-passes some protections and may create invalid C3D if not used properly.

MATLAB

MATLAB (https://www.mathworks.com/) is a prototyping language largely used in industry and fairly used by the biomechanical scientific community. Despite the existence of Octave as an open-source and very similar language or the growing popularity of Python as a free and open-source alternative, MATLAB remains an important player as a programming languages. Therefore EZC3D comes with a binder for MATLAB (that can theoretically used with Octave as well with some minor changes to the CMakeLists.txt file).

MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory. As the name suggest, it is mainly used to perform operation on matrix. With that in mind, the binder was written to organize the point so it is easy to perform matrix multiplication on them. Hence, EZC3D works on MATLAB structure that separate the header, the parameter and the data. Into the header structure, you will find information on the points, the analogs and the events. Into the parameter, you will find all the groups and parameters as they appear in the C3D file. Finally, in the data, there is the points values organized into a 3d hypermatrix (XYZ x N_POINTS x N_FRAMES) and the analogs values organized into a 2d matrix (N_FRAMES x N_CHANNELS).

Create an empty yet valid C3D structure

To create a new valid yet empty C3D, just call the ezc3dRead without any argument.

c3d = ezc3dRead();
disp(c3d.parameter.POINT.USED); % Print the number of points used

Read a C3D

To read a C3D file you simply to call the ezc3dRead with the path to c3d as the first argument.

c3d = ezc3dRead('path_to_c3d.c3d');
disp(c3d.parameter.POINT.USED); % Print the number of points used

Write a C3D

To write a C3D to a file, you must call the ezc3dWrite function. This function waits for the path of the C3D to write and a valid structure. Please note that the header is actually ignore since it is fully constructed from required parameters. Hence, a valid structure may omit the header. Still, for simplicity, it is easier to send a structure created via the ezc3dRead function.

% Create a valid structure to work on
c3d = ezc3dRead();

% Add a point to the structure. 
c3d.parameter.POINT.RATE = 100;
c3d.parameter.POINT.USED = c3d.parameter.POINT.USED + 1;
c3d.parameter.POINT.LABELS = [c3d.parameter.POINT.LABELS, 'NewMarkerName'];
c3d.data.points = rand(3,1,100);

% Write the C3D
ezc3dWrite('path_to_c3d.c3d', c3d);

Python 3

Python (https://www.python.org/) is a scripting language that has taken more and more importance over the past years. So much that now it is one of the preferred language of the scientific community. Its simplicity yet its large power to perform a large variety of tasks makes it a certainty that its popularity won't decrease for the next years.

To interface the C++ code with Python, SWIG is a great tool. It creates very rapidly an interface in the target language with minimal code to write. However, the resulting code in the target language can be far from being easy to use. In effect, it gives a mixed-API not far from the original C++ language, which may not comply to best practices of the target language. When this is useful to rapidly create an interface, it lacks of user-friendliness. EZC3D interfaces the C++ code using SWIG, but add a more pythonic layer on top of it. This top layer is not mandatory for the user (it is possible to call directly the SWIG interface via ezc3d.ezc3d instead of ezc3d.c3d), but the time lost to organized the data into a dictionary is insignificant compared to the ease of use this interface provides. I therefore strongly suggest to used this python interface.

Please note, to navigate the c3d struture provided by the interface, the easiest way is to use the keys() method since this is a dictionary.

Create an empty yet valid C3D structure

To create a new valid yet empty C3D, just call the ezc3d.c3d() method without any argument.

from ezc3d import c3d
c = c3d()
print(c['parameters']['POINT']['USED']['value'][0]);  # Print the number of points used

Read a C3D

To read a C3D file you simply to call the ezc3d.c3d() with the path to c3d as the first argument.

from ezc3d import c3d
c = c3d('path_to_c3d.c3d')
print(c['parameters']['POINT']['USED']['value'][0]);  # Print the number of points used
point_data = c['data']['points']
points_residuals = c['data']['meta_points']['residuals']
analog_data = c['data']['analogs']

Please note that the shape of point_data is 4xNxT, where 4 represent the components XYZ1 (the 3D coordinates of the point add with a 1 so it can be used with homogeneous matrices), N is the number of points and T is the number of frames. Similarly, and to be consistent with the point shape, the shape of analog_data are 1xNxT, where 1 is the value, N is the number of analogous data and T is the number of frames. The meta_point dictionary contains information about the residuals as provided from the data acquisition system: residuals are the mean error of the point (a negative value meaning that the point is invalid, usually because of occlusion) and camera_masks being a collection of flags if the cameras had seen the point or not (unless specified in the parameter section, the cameras are the seven first, this collection of flags is limited to 7 boolean values). The dimensions of the former are 1xNxT and the dimensions of the latter are 7xNxT.

Write a C3D

To write a C3D to a file, you must call the write method of a c3d dictionnary. This method waits for the path of the C3D to write. Please note that the header is actually ignore since it is fully constructed from required parameters.

The example that follows contructs a new C3D from scratch, adding data and adding a custom parameter.

import numpy as np

import ezc3d

# Load an empty c3d structure
c3d = ezc3d.c3d()

# Fill it with random data
c3d['parameters']['POINT']['RATE']['value'] = [100]
c3d['parameters']['POINT']['LABELS']['value'] = ('point1', 'point2', 'point3', 'point4', 'point5')
c3d['data']['points'] = np.random.rand(4, 5, 100)
c3d['data']['points'][1, :, :] = 2
c3d['data']['points'][2, :, :] = 3

c3d['parameters']['ANALOG']['RATE']['value'] = [1000]
c3d['parameters']['ANALOG']['LABELS']['value'] = ('analog1', 'analog2', 'analog3', 'analog4', 'analog5', 'analog6')
c3d['data']['analogs'] = np.random.rand(1, 6, 1000)
c3d['data']['analogs'][0, 0, :] = 4
c3d['data']['analogs'][0, 1, :] = 5
c3d['data']['analogs'][0, 2, :] = 6
c3d['data']['analogs'][0, 3, :] = 7
c3d['data']['analogs'][0, 4, :] = 8
c3d['data']['analogs'][0, 5, :] = 9

# Add a custom parameter to the POINT group
c3d.add_parameter("POINT", "newParam", [1, 2, 3])

# Add a custom parameter a new group
c3d.add_parameter("NewGroup", "newParam", ["MyParam1", "MyParam2"])

# Write the data
c3d.write("path_to_c3d.c3d")

Please note that the shape of point_data is 4xNxT, where 4 represent the components XYZ1 (the 3D coordinates of the point add with a 1 so it can be used with homogeneous matrices), N is the number of points and T is the number of frames. Similarly, and to be consistent with the point shape, the shape of analog_data are 1xNxT, where 1 is the value, N is the number of analogous data and T is the number of frames. The meta_point dictionary contains information about the residuals as provided from the data acquisition system: residuals are the mean error of the point (a negative value meaning that the point is invalid, usually because of occlusion, the default value is 0.0) and camera_masks being a collection of flags if the cameras had seen the point or not (unless specified in the parameter section, the cameras are the seven first, this collection of flags is limited to 7 boolean values, the default values are False for all the cameras). The dimensions of the former are 1xNxT and the dimensions of the latter are 7xNxT. If no meta_point are provided, the default values are used.

How to contribute

You are very welcome to contribute to the project! There are to main ways to contribute.

The first way is to actually code new features for EZC3D. The easiest way to do so is to fork the project, make the modifications and then open a pull request to the main project. Don't forget to add your name to the contributor in the documentation of the page if you do so!

The second way is to provide me with non-working C3D files (See the C3D Softwares section below for more details). There is another repository for test files in the pyomeca (https://github.com/pyomeca/ezc3d_c3dTestFiles). You can fork this project, add your C3D in according to the recommendations and pull request it. This will be greatly appreciated by me and the biomechanics community!

Using the test suite

EZC3D is tested with the test suite from google gtest (https://github.com/google/googletest).

If you want to add or change some tests, you are very welcome to do so (actually it makes me very happy!). You should compile EZC3D with the BUILD_TESTS options turned on. The google test suite should download itself automatically.

Afterwards, you can create a new test with the following function declaration

TEST(NameOfTestStructure, NameOfTest) {
  // Your test here...
}

You are invited to write tests for true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative using different combinations of EXPECT_EQ (or EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ if you compare float-precision numbers), EXPECT_NE, ASSERT_TRUE, EXPECT_THROW and EXPECT_NO_THROW. For a complete explaination of the google test suite, please refer to one of the numerous tutorial on the web.

I also implemented some useful function such as compareHeader(myFirstC3d, mySecondC3d) and compareData(myFirstC3d, mySecondC3d) which strickly compares header and data respectively. If you expect differences though, these function are for no use and you should copy-paste the content of them in your test (and change whatever is expected to be different). It is also possible to create a fully filled structure using the fillC3D(c3dTestStruct& c3dStruc, bool withPoints, bool withAnalogs) function and it can be tested with the defaultHeaderTest and defaultParametersTest function. Again, if you expect differences with the default setting, you should not use these default testing functions, but copy the relevant part in you extra test.

Supported generated C3D

The software companies have loosely implemented the C3D standard proposed by http://C3D.org. Hence, there are some workaround that must be incorporated to the code to be able to read the C3D created using third-party softwares. So far, C3D from four different companies were tested. Vicon (https://www.vicon.com/), Qualisys (https://www.qualisys.com/), Optotrak (https://www.ndigital.com/msci/products/optotrak-certus/) and BTS Bioengineering (https://www.btsbioengineering.com/). But I am sure there is plenty of other obscure companies or simply cases that were not tested from these companies (simply because I don't have C3D to test). If you find yourself with a bug when trying to read a C3D that should work, please open an issue and provide me with the corresponding C3D (see How to contribute).

Documentation

C3D format

The C3D format is maintained by http://c3d.org. They provide recommendation on how to implement reader/writer for the format. There is a copy of the documentation PDF in the doc folder. You are also welcome to have a look at a newer version if they ever create an update.

EZC3D

The documentation is automatically generated using Doxygen (http://www.doxygen.org/). You can compile it yourself if you want (by setting BUILD_DOC to ON). Otherwise, you can access a copy of it that I try to keep up-to-date in the Documentation project of pyomeca (https://pyomeca.github.io/Documentation/) by selecting ezc3d.

Troubleshoots

Despite my efforts to make a bug-free library, EZC3D may fails sometimes. If it does, please refer to the section below to know what to do. I will fill this section with the issue over time.

Slow C3D opening

If you experience a slow C3D opening (more than 10 seconds), even for a huge C3D file. You may be in one of two cases.

First, mak sure you are using EZC3D compiled with optimizations (RelWithDebInfo or Release). Indeed, the way C3D files are formated implies back and fourth memory allocations between points and analogs. If the optimization are turned off, it may take a little while to perform.

If you actually are using a released level of optimization, you may actually experiencing a bug. You are therefore welcomed to send me the long to open C3D file so I can optimize few things by myself. Everyone will benefit!

Non-working C3D

The C3D format allows for some pretty old and probably useless stuff. For example, you are allowed to store the points in the form of integers instead of floating points that you would scale afterwards. Since it may have make sense many years ago, it is very unlikely anyone would need this nowadays. Hence, and because I did not have any examples of such C3D to test, I decided to ignore these features (you would know easily since the code raises a not implemented exception). However, at some point, for some reason, you may need these features. If so, you are welcomed to open an issue and to provide me with the non-working C3D. I will make my best to add the feature ASAP.

Moreover, as stated before, some (all?) companies were pretty loose in their implementation of the C3D standard. Actually, the standard itself states how much you don't need to follow it, which it kind of strange, the least to say. Because of that, entire sections that are supposed to be mandatory may be missing, or checksum may have the wrong value (these are real omissions...), or anything which hasn't happened yet may occurs. There is no way for me, of course, to know that in advance, hence these exception are not implemented yet. If you encounter such files (the exception raised may be from any nature, but the most probable is segmentation fault), again do not hesitate to open an issue and to provide me with the non-working C3D.

Cite

If you use EZC3D, we would be grateful if you could cite it as follows:

@misc{Michaud2018ezc3d,
    author = {Michaud, Benjamin and Begon, Mickael},
    title = {EZC3D: Easy to use C3D reader/writer in C++, Python and Matlab},
    howpublished={Web page},
    url = {https://github.com/pyomeca/ezc3d},
    year = {2018}
}
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