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Offer suggestions on AttributeError and NameError #82711

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pablogsal opened this issue Oct 19, 2019 · 40 comments
Closed

Offer suggestions on AttributeError and NameError #82711

pablogsal opened this issue Oct 19, 2019 · 40 comments
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3.9 interpreter-core type-feature

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@pablogsal
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@pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

BPO 38530
Nosy @vstinner, @aroberge, @serhiy-storchaka, @1st1, @pablogsal, @tirkarthi, @isidentical, @sweeneyde
PRs
  • #16850
  • #16856
  • #25397
  • #25408
  • #25412
  • #25443
  • #25444
  • #25460
  • #25462
  • #25473
  • #25584
  • #25776
  • Note: these values reflect the state of the issue at the time it was migrated and might not reflect the current state.

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    GitHub fields:

    assignee = None
    closed_at = <Date 2021-04-14.23:32:49.056>
    created_at = <Date 2019-10-19.18:57:31.623>
    labels = ['interpreter-core', 'type-feature', '3.9']
    title = 'Offer suggestions on AttributeError and NameError'
    updated_at = <Date 2021-05-03.15:47:35.739>
    user = 'https://github.com/pablogsal'

    bugs.python.org fields:

    activity = <Date 2021-05-03.15:47:35.739>
    actor = 'pablogsal'
    assignee = 'none'
    closed = True
    closed_date = <Date 2021-04-14.23:32:49.056>
    closer = 'pablogsal'
    components = ['Interpreter Core']
    creation = <Date 2019-10-19.18:57:31.623>
    creator = 'pablogsal'
    dependencies = []
    files = []
    hgrepos = []
    issue_num = 38530
    keywords = ['patch']
    message_count = 40.0
    messages = ['354954', '354955', '354956', '354957', '354958', '354959', '354960', '354964', '354965', '354967', '354969', '354970', '354971', '354972', '354973', '354975', '354979', '354981', '355499', '355503', '355527', '355530', '355531', '355533', '359977', '391026', '391080', '391090', '391108', '391123', '391219', '391224', '391312', '391316', '391834', '392007', '392513', '392543', '392581', '392817']
    nosy_count = 9.0
    nosy_names = ['vstinner', 'aroberge', 'serhiy.storchaka', 'yselivanov', 'james', 'pablogsal', 'xtreak', 'BTaskaya', 'Dennis Sweeney']
    pr_nums = ['16850', '16856', '25397', '25408', '25412', '25443', '25444', '25460', '25462', '25473', '25584', '25776']
    priority = 'normal'
    resolution = 'fixed'
    stage = 'resolved'
    status = 'closed'
    superseder = None
    type = 'enhancement'
    url = 'https://bugs.python.org/issue38530'
    versions = ['Python 3.9']

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    To improve the debugging experience in both interactive and non-interactive code, I propose to offer suggestions when attribute access fails. For example:

    >>> class A: foo = None
    ... 
    >>> A.fou
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    AttributeError: type object 'A' has no attribute 'fou'

    Did you mean: foo?

    This also applies to imports from modules and other situations:

    >>> import collections
    >>> collections.NamedTuple
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    AttributeError: module 'collections' has no attribute 'NamedTuple'

    Did you mean: namedtuple?

    @pablogsal pablogsal added 3.9 interpreter-core type-feature labels Oct 19, 2019
    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    PR 16850 shows an initial prototype for the idea

    @isidentical
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    @isidentical isidentical commented Oct 19, 2019

    It already exists as a 3rd party module and it would be really cool to have this in core level.

    https://github.com/dutc/didyoumean (by James Powell)

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    I am not super convinced that this is a great idea because it has some performance cost (although somewhat controlled) but I want to open a discussion.

    @tirkarthi
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    @tirkarthi tirkarthi commented Oct 19, 2019

    Ruby has it integrated into the core : https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/11252 . It was initially a gem that got merged into core.

    methosd
    undefined local variable or method methosd' for main:Object Did you mean? methods method (repl):1:in

    '

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    Idea: we could only do this in interactive mode if we consider that is expensive enough.

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    I am running pyperformance to check the performance cost of this.

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    Slower (27):

    • pathlib: 25.2 ms +- 0.4 ms -> 105 ms +- 2 ms: 4.18x slower (+318%)
    • sympy_str: 315 ms +- 3 ms -> 500 ms +- 3 ms: 1.59x slower (+59%)
    • sympy_sum: 203 ms +- 2 ms -> 286 ms +- 2 ms: 1.41x slower (+41%)
    • sqlalchemy_imperative: 36.5 ms +- 0.9 ms -> 41.8 ms +- 0.8 ms: 1.14x slower (+14%)
    • python_startup: 12.4 ms +- 0.1 ms -> 13.9 ms +- 0.0 ms: 1.12x slower (+12%)
    • python_startup_no_site: 9.19 ms +- 0.04 ms -> 10.3 ms +- 0.0 ms: 1.12x slower (+12%)
    • sympy_integrate: 24.9 ms +- 0.1 ms -> 27.6 ms +- 0.3 ms: 1.11x slower (+11%)
    • scimark_sparse_mat_mult: 5.21 ms +- 0.05 ms -> 5.49 ms +- 0.06 ms: 1.05x slower (+5%)
    • unpickle_list: 5.78 us +- 0.07 us -> 6.08 us +- 0.07 us: 1.05x slower (+5%)
    • 2to3: 392 ms +- 2 ms -> 411 ms +- 10 ms: 1.05x slower (+5%)
    • nbody: 155 ms +- 2 ms -> 160 ms +- 2 ms: 1.03x slower (+3%)
    • scimark_fft: 423 ms +- 2 ms -> 432 ms +- 3 ms: 1.02x slower (+2%)
    • float: 142 ms +- 2 ms -> 145 ms +- 2 ms: 1.02x slower (+2%)
    • unpack_sequence: 68.6 ns +- 2.5 ns -> 69.9 ns +- 2.1 ns: 1.02x slower (+2%)
    • pickle_list: 5.65 us +- 0.05 us -> 5.76 us +- 0.07 us: 1.02x slower (+2%)
    • fannkuch: 569 ms +- 3 ms -> 579 ms +- 6 ms: 1.02x slower (+2%)
    • xml_etree_parse: 196 ms +- 2 ms -> 199 ms +- 2 ms: 1.02x slower (+2%)
    • sqlalchemy_declarative: 210 ms +- 2 ms -> 213 ms +- 3 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • unpickle: 16.9 us +- 0.1 us -> 17.2 us +- 0.7 us: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • regex_effbot: 3.93 ms +- 0.12 ms -> 3.97 ms +- 0.04 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • scimark_monte_carlo: 128 ms +- 2 ms -> 129 ms +- 2 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • scimark_lu: 186 ms +- 5 ms -> 188 ms +- 6 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • regex_dna: 272 ms +- 1 ms -> 274 ms +- 1 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • xml_etree_iterparse: 130 ms +- 2 ms -> 131 ms +- 3 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • genshi_xml: 74.3 ms +- 0.8 ms -> 74.8 ms +- 0.8 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • regex_v8: 29.7 ms +- 0.3 ms -> 29.9 ms +- 0.2 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • mako: 19.3 ms +- 0.3 ms -> 19.4 ms +- 0.2 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)

    The current approach is too expensive, so I'm closing PR 16850.

    @serhiy-storchaka
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    @serhiy-storchaka serhiy-storchaka commented Oct 19, 2019

    AFAIK there is existing issue for this idea.

    I have doubts about performance. I added _PyObject_LookupAttr in particularly to avoid an overhead of raising and silencing an AttributeError. I believe most performance sensitive code in the core now uses it and will not be affected, but there is other code which silences it (_PyObject_LookupAttr itself silences an AttributeError raised in called functions), third-party code which uses PyObject_HasAttr or PyObject_GetAttr can be affected.

    It might be simpler to implement it in sys.excepthook or sys.displayhook, but at that point we do not have attribute name and a reference to the object. There is an issues and a PEP about adding references to AttributeError. It could help to implement this feature.

    @serhiy-storchaka
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    @serhiy-storchaka serhiy-storchaka commented Oct 19, 2019

    I am surprised that it was SO expensive.

    Pathlib would largely benefit from cached_property if it be compatible with slots.

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    Serhiy, do you think we could attach the object and the name to some private fields of the AttributeError and check that in sys.excepthook if they are present?

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    I will also repeat the pyperformance results locally just in case something was off on the speed.python.org server.

    @serhiy-storchaka
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    @serhiy-storchaka serhiy-storchaka commented Oct 19, 2019

    Why private? They should be public.

    But the problem is that making a reference to the object we can prolong its lifetime and even create a reference loop. There was a proposition to create a weak reference, but not all types support weak reference.

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    Why private? They should be public.

    I was suggesting orivate for now until the/a PEP to modify the exception is approved. In this way we could try to implement the feature that way.

    ------

    On the other hand do you see any way to make the current approach not that slow? Maybe activating it only on interactive mode?

    @serhiy-storchaka
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    @serhiy-storchaka serhiy-storchaka commented Oct 19, 2019

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    But the problem is that making a reference to the object we can prolong its lifetime and even create a reference loop.

    If I'm not mistaken, as long as the traceback is alive, the object is alive beacuse the frames will contain it. The other case is if the exception is not propagated, but in that case it should just die unless explicitly captured.

    The cycle only happens if the object has a reference to the exception, and that should not happen in the general case.

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 19, 2019

    I have opened PR 16856 adding fields to the AttributeError and implementing the feature in PyErr_Display.

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 20, 2019

    With the new approach, there is no measurable different in performance:

    venv ❯ pyperf compare_to json/2019-10-19_20-01-master-24dc2f8c5669.json.gz json/2019-10-20_01-32-suggestions2-21404456383b.json.gz -G

    Slower (3):

    • 2to3: 400 ms +- 2 ms -> 405 ms +- 3 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • sqlite_synth: 3.46 us +- 0.08 us -> 3.50 us +- 0.08 us: 1.01x slower (+1%)
    • nqueens: 121 ms +- 1 ms -> 121 ms +- 1 ms: 1.01x slower (+1%)

    Faster(4):

    • hexiom: 11.9 ms +- 0.1 ms -> 11.8 ms +- 0.1 ms: 1.01x faster (-1%)
    • xml_etree_generate: 113 ms +- 2 ms -> 113 ms +- 2 ms: 1.01x faster (-1%)
    • python_startup_no_site: 9.25 ms +- 0.06 ms -> 9.20 ms +- 0.01 ms: 1.01x faster (-1%)
    • go: 317 ms +- 4 ms -> 315 ms +- 3 ms: 1.01x faster (-1%)
    • sympy_integrate: 25.1 ms +- 0.2 ms -> 25.0 ms +- 0.1 ms: 1.01x faster (-1%)

    Benchmark hidden because not significant (57): chameleon, chaos, crypto_pyaes, deltablue, dulwich_log, fannkuch, float, genshi_text, genshi_xml, json_dumps, json_loads, logging_format, logging_silent, logging_simple, mako, meteor_contest, nbody, pathlib, pickle, pickle_dict, pickle_list, pickle_pure_python, pidigits, python_startup, raytrace, regex_compile, regex_dna, regex_effbot, regex_v8, richards, scimark_fft, scimark_lu, scimark_monte_carlo, scimark_sor, scimark_sparse_mat_mult, spectral_norm, sqlalchemy_declarative, sqlalchemy_imperative, sympy_expand, sympy_sum, sympy_str, telco, unpack_sequence, unpickle, unpickle_list, unpickle_pure_python, xml_etree_parse, xml_etree_iterparse, xml_etree_process

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 27, 2019

    I think I am going to proceed to modify PR 16856 by adding the name and the object to the AttributeError exceptions.

    This should not extend the lifetime of the object more than the current exception is doing as the exception keeps alive the whole frame stack in the __traceback__ attribute. Consider this code for example:

    class Target:
        def __del__(self):
            print("The object is dead!")
    
    def f():
        g()
    
    def g():
        h()
    
    def h():
        theobj = Target()
        theobj.thevalue

    try:
    f()
    except Exception as e:
    print(e.__traceback__.tb_next.tb_next.tb_next.tb_frame.f_locals["theobj"])
    print("End of except")
    print("Begining of the next line")

    This code prints:

    <main.Target object at 0x7f064adbfe10>
    End of except
    The object is dead!
    Beginning of the next line

    We can notice two things:

    • The target objects are reachable from the exception.
    • When the exception dies, the target object dies.

    Adding another reference to the target object to the exception won't change the current lifetime, neither will create reference cycles as the target object will not have (unless explicitly created) a reference to the exception. We can conclude that this change should be safe.

    In the resolution email for PEP-473 the council stated that "Discussions about adding more attributes to built-in exceptions can continue on the issue tracker on a per-exception basis". As I think this will be very beneficial for the feature discussed in the issue, I will proceed as indicated.

    Notice that if we want to change all internal CPython code that raises AttributeError to use the new fields, this should be done in a different PR to keep this minimal. For this feature, we still need to intercept AttributeError raised by the user without these fields added.

    @serhiy-storchaka
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    @serhiy-storchaka serhiy-storchaka commented Oct 27, 2019

    Interesting, why locals are not cleared when an exception leaves a frame?

    @vstinner
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    @vstinner vstinner commented Oct 28, 2019

    Helping the developer to suggest a fix introduces a minor but non-zero overhead, I would prefer to only enable it as an opt-in option. Maybe enable it using in the development mode (-X dev/PYTHONDEVMODE=1)?

    https://github.com/dutc/didyoumean (by James Powell)

    This project hooks into PyObject_GetAttr() by modifying PyObject_GetAttr() machine code, which is definitely not a portable approach.

    Maybe one approach would be to add a way to install a hook to customize AttributeError exceptions?

    Can this issue be implemented using sys.excepthook?

    --

    This issue is specific to AttributeError, but I vaguely recall that Yury Selivanov told me that he wanted to something but for any exception. Detect the most common mistakes and propose a solution. I don't think that he ever sent anything in public sadly.

    I add Yury in the nosy list.

    --

    Here is another project which also catch NameError, AttributeError, ImportError, TypeError, ValueError, SyntaxError, MemoryError, OverflowError, OSError, RuntimeError, etc. :
    https://github.com/SylvainDe/DidYouMean-Python

    It is implemented with sys.excepthook, but it is also compatible with IPython "custom exception handler" (call get_ipython().set_custom_exc()).

    By the way, does IPython have a feature like this?

    In short, https://github.com/SylvainDe/DidYouMean-Python seems to already implement this issue in the proper way, no?

    --

    Similar project for Ruby:
    https://github.com/yuki24/did_you_mean

    @pablogsal
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 28, 2019

    By the way, does IPython have a feature like this?

    Not that I know of.

    In short, https://github.com/SylvainDe/DidYouMean-Python seems to already implement this issue in the proper way, no?

    I briefly checked the project. My current approach exposes the object and the name directly on the exception, so the display hook can directly using them instead of fiddling with frames and other things.

    Additionally, I think it would be very beneficial to have it in the core, as many people learning python for example cannot install packages.

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Oct 28, 2019

    Helping the developer to suggest a fix introduces a minor but non-zero overhead, I would prefer to only enable it as an opt-in option. Maybe enable it using in the development mode (-X dev/PYTHONDEVMODE=1)?

    I think doing that would make it lose almost completely its value.

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    @vstinner vstinner commented Oct 28, 2019

    Ruby has it integrated into the core : https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/11252 . It was initially a gem that got merged into core.

    GCC also provides more and more hints. Example:

       int main() { int hello = 1; return helo; }

    GCC:

    error: 'helo' undeclared (first use in this function); did you mean 'hello'?

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    @vstinner vstinner commented Jan 14, 2020

    Related issue: PEP-534 -- Improved Errors for Missing Standard Library Modules
    https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0534/

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 14, 2021

    New changeset 37494b4 by Pablo Galindo in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Offer suggestions on AttributeError (bpo-16856)
    37494b4

    @pablogsal pablogsal changed the title Offer suggestions on AttributeError Offer suggestions on AttributeError and NameError Apr 14, 2021
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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 14, 2021

    New changeset 5bf8bf2 by Pablo Galindo in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Offer suggestions on NameError (GH-25397)
    5bf8bf2

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 14, 2021

    New changeset e07f4ab by Pablo Galindo in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Make sure that failing to generate suggestions on failure will not propagate exceptions (GH-25408)
    e07f4ab

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 14, 2021

    New changeset 3fc65b9 by Pablo Galindo in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Optimize the calculation of string sizes when offering suggestions (GH-25412)
    3fc65b9

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    @vstinner vstinner commented Apr 15, 2021

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 16, 2021

    New changeset 3b82cae by Pablo Galindo in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Properly extend UnboundLocalError from NameError (GH-25444)
    3b82cae

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 16, 2021

    New changeset 0ad81d4 by Pablo Galindo in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Match exactly AttributeError and NameError when offering suggestions (GH-25443)
    0ad81d4

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 17, 2021

    New changeset 3ab4bea by Pablo Galindo in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Include builtins in NameError suggestions (GH-25460)
    3ab4bea

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 17, 2021

    New changeset 0b1c169 by Pablo Galindo in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Cover more error paths in error suggestion functions (GH-25462)
    0b1c169

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    @sweeneyde sweeneyde commented Apr 25, 2021

    I opened PR 25584 to fix this current behavior:

    >>> v
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    NameError: name 'v' is not defined. Did you mean: 'id'?
    >>> vv
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    NameError: name 'vv' is not defined. Did you mean: 'id'?
    >>> vvv
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    NameError: name 'vvv' is not defined. Did you mean: 'abs'?

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 27, 2021

    New changeset 284c52d by Dennis Sweeney in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Require 50% similarity in NameError and AttributeError suggestions (GH-25584)
    284c52d

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    @sweeneyde sweeneyde commented Apr 30, 2021

    Some research of other projects:

    LLVM [1][2]
    -----------

    • Compute Levenshtein
      • Using O(n) memory rather than O(n^2)
    • Uses UpperBound = (len(typo) + 2) // 3

    GCC [3]
    -------

    • Uses Damerau-Levenshtein distance
      • Counts transpositions like "abcd" <-> "bacd" as one move
    • Swapping Case as in "a" <-> "A" counts as half a move
    • cutoff = (longer + 2) // 3 if longer - shorter >= 2 else max(longer // 3, 1)

    Rust [4]
    --------

    • "maximum allowable edit distance defaults to one-third of the given word."
    • First checks for exact case-insensitive match, then check for Levenshtein distance small enough, then check if sorted(a.split("_")) == sorted(b.split("_"))

    Ruby [5]
    --------

    • Quickly filter out words with bad Jaro–Winkler distance
      • threshold = input.length > 3 ? 0.834 : 0.77
    • Only compute Levenshtein for words that remain
      • threshold = (input.length * 0.25).ceil
      • Output all good enough words
    • If no word was good enough then output the closest match.

    I think there are some good ideas here.

    [1] https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project/blob/d480f968ad8b56d3ee4a6b6df5532d485b0ad01e/llvm/include/llvm/ADT/edit_distance.h#L42
    [2] https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project/blob/e2b3b89bf1ce74bf889897e0353a3e3fa93e4452/clang/lib/Sema/SemaLookup.cpp#L4263
    [3] https://github.com/gcc-mirror/gcc/blob/16e2427f50c208dfe07d07f18009969502c25dc8/gcc/spellcheck.c
    [4] https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/blob/673d0db5e393e9c64897005b470bfeb6d5aec61b/compiler/rustc_span/src/lev_distance.rs#L44
    [5] https://github.com/ruby/ruby/blob/48b94b791997881929c739c64f95ac30f3fd0bb9/lib/did_you_mean/spell_checker.rb

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented Apr 30, 2021

    Hi Dennis, this is a fantastic investigation!

    I think I really like GCC approach here. We may want to invest into porting some of their ideas into our solution.

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    @sweeneyde sweeneyde commented May 1, 2021

    PR 25776 is a work in progress for what it might look like to do a few things:

    • Make case-swaps half the cost of any other edit
    • Refactor Levenshtein code to not use memory allocator, and to bail early on no match.
    • Add comments to Levenshtein distance code
    • Add test cases for Levenshtein distance behind a debug macro
    • Set threshold to (name_size + item_size + 3) * MOVE_COST / 6.
      • Reasoning: similar to difflib.SequenceMatcher.ratio() >= 2/3:
        "Multiset Jaccard similarity" >= 2/3
        matching letters / total letters >= 2/3
        (name_size - distance + item_size - distance) / (name_size + item_size) >= 2/3
        1 - (2*distance) / (name_size + item_size) >= 2/3
        1/3 >= (2*distance) / (name_size + item_size)
        (name_size + item_size) / 6 >= distance
        With rounding:
        (name_size + item_size + 3) // 6 >= distance

    Re: Damerau-Levenshtein (transpositions as single edits), if that were to get implemented, I don't see a way to do that without using a buffer of at least 3x the size, storing the most recent 3 rows of the matrix.

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    @pablogsal pablogsal commented May 3, 2021

    New changeset 80a2a4e by Dennis Sweeney in branch 'master':
    bpo-38530: Refactor and improve AttributeError suggestions (GH-25776)
    80a2a4e

    @ezio-melotti ezio-melotti transferred this issue from another repository Apr 10, 2022
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    3.9 interpreter-core type-feature
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