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1 parent 89b7581 commit c3f53f412cd170fc295b46e48aa81837ad15ec83 @lifo lifo committed Dec 19, 2008
Showing with 881 additions and 1,128 deletions.
  1. +1 −0 actionmailer/lib/action_mailer/base.rb
  2. +1 −1 actionpack/lib/action_view/helpers/date_helper.rb
  3. +13 −5 actionpack/lib/action_view/helpers/form_options_helper.rb
  4. +5 −5 activerecord/lib/active_record/associations.rb
  5. +1 −2 activerecord/lib/active_record/base.rb
  6. +1 −0 activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/connection_specification.rb
  7. +3 −1 activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb
  8. +3 −3 activerecord/lib/active_record/validations.rb
  9. +52 −29 railties/doc/guides/html/activerecord_validations_callbacks.html
  10. +6 −0 railties/doc/guides/html/finders.html
  11. +1 −1 railties/doc/guides/html/getting_started_with_rails.html
  12. +1 −1 railties/doc/guides/html/layouts_and_rendering.html
  13. +516 −954 railties/doc/guides/html/testing_rails_applications.html
  14. +50 −25 railties/doc/guides/source/activerecord_validations_callbacks.txt
  15. +40 −4 railties/doc/guides/source/finders.txt
  16. +1 −1 railties/doc/guides/source/getting_started_with_rails.txt
  17. +175 −85 railties/doc/guides/source/i18n.txt
  18. BIN railties/doc/guides/source/images/i18n/demo_localized_pirate.png
  19. BIN railties/doc/guides/source/images/i18n/demo_translated_en.png
  20. BIN railties/doc/guides/source/images/i18n/demo_translated_pirate.png
  21. BIN railties/doc/guides/source/images/i18n/demo_translation_missing.png
  22. BIN railties/doc/guides/source/images/i18n/demo_untranslated.png
  23. +10 −10 railties/doc/guides/source/testing_rails_applications.txt
  24. +1 −1 railties/lib/rails/plugin/locator.rb
View
1 actionmailer/lib/action_mailer/base.rb
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@ module ActionMailer #:nodoc:
# class Notifier < ActionMailer::Base
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
+ # bcc ["bcc@example.com", "Order Watcher <watcher@example.com>"]
# from "system@example.com"
# subject "New account information"
# body :account => recipient
View
2 actionpack/lib/action_view/helpers/date_helper.rb
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ def time_ago_in_words(from_time, include_seconds = false)
#
# ==== Options
# * <tt>:use_month_numbers</tt> - Set to true if you want to use month numbers rather than month names (e.g.
- # "2" instead of "February").
+ # "2" instead of "February").
# * <tt>:use_short_month</tt> - Set to true if you want to use the abbreviated month name instead of the full
# name (e.g. "Feb" instead of "February").
# * <tt>:add_month_number</tt> - Set to true if you want to show both, the month's number and name (e.g.
View
18 actionpack/lib/action_view/helpers/form_options_helper.rb
@@ -201,13 +201,21 @@ def options_for_select(container, selected = nil)
# Returns a string of option tags that have been compiled by iterating over the +collection+ and assigning the
# the result of a call to the +value_method+ as the option value and the +text_method+ as the option text.
- # If +selected+ is specified, the element returning a match on +value_method+ will get the selected option tag.
+ # Example:
+ # options_from_collection_for_select(@people, 'id', 'name')
+ # This will output the same HTML as if you did this:
+ # <option value="#{person.id}">#{person.name}</option>
#
- # Example (call, result). Imagine a loop iterating over each +person+ in <tt>@project.people</tt> to generate an input tag:
- # options_from_collection_for_select(@project.people, "id", "name")
- # <option value="#{person.id}">#{person.name}</option>
+ # This is more often than not used inside a #select_tag like this example:
+ # select_tag 'person', options_from_collection_for_select(@people, 'id', 'name')
#
- # NOTE: Only the option tags are returned, you have to wrap this call in a regular HTML select tag.
+ # If +selected+ is specified, the element returning a match on +value_method+ will get the selected option tag.
+ # Be sure to specify the same class as the +value_method+ when specifying a selected option.
+ # Failure to do this will produce undesired results. Example:
+ # options_from_collection_for_select(@people, 'id', 'name', '1')
+ # Will not select a person with the id of 1 because 1 (an Integer) is not the same as '1' (a string)
+ # options_from_collection_for_select(@people, 'id', 'name', 1)
+ # should produce the desired results.
def options_from_collection_for_select(collection, value_method, text_method, selected = nil)
options = collection.map do |element|
[element.send(text_method), element.send(value_method)]
View
10 activerecord/lib/active_record/associations.rb
@@ -153,7 +153,7 @@ def clear_association_cache #:nodoc:
# #others.destroy_all | X | X | X
# #others.find(*args) | X | X | X
# #others.find_first | X | |
- # #others.exist? | X | X | X
+ # #others.exists? | X | X | X
# #others.uniq | X | X | X
# #others.reset | X | X | X
#
@@ -652,7 +652,7 @@ module ClassMethods
# Returns the number of associated objects.
# [collection.find(...)]
# Finds an associated object according to the same rules as ActiveRecord::Base.find.
- # [collection.exist?(...)]
+ # [collection.exists?(...)]
# Checks whether an associated object with the given conditions exists.
# Uses the same rules as ActiveRecord::Base.exists?.
# [collection.build(attributes = {}, ...)]
@@ -682,7 +682,7 @@ module ClassMethods
# * <tt>Firm#clients.empty?</tt> (similar to <tt>firm.clients.size == 0</tt>)
# * <tt>Firm#clients.size</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.count "firm_id = #{id}"</tt>)
# * <tt>Firm#clients.find</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.find(id, :conditions => "firm_id = #{id}")</tt>)
- # * <tt>Firm#clients.exist?(:name => 'ACME')</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.exist?(:name => 'ACME', :firm_id => firm.id)</tt>)
+ # * <tt>Firm#clients.exists?(:name => 'ACME')</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.exists?(:name => 'ACME', :firm_id => firm.id)</tt>)
# * <tt>Firm#clients.build</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.new("firm_id" => id)</tt>)
# * <tt>Firm#clients.create</tt> (similar to <tt>c = Client.new("firm_id" => id); c.save; c</tt>)
# The declaration can also include an options hash to specialize the behavior of the association.
@@ -1107,7 +1107,7 @@ def belongs_to(association_id, options = {})
# Finds an associated object responding to the +id+ and that
# meets the condition that it has to be associated with this object.
# Uses the same rules as ActiveRecord::Base.find.
- # [collection.exist?(...)]
+ # [collection.exists?(...)]
# Checks whether an associated object with the given conditions exists.
# Uses the same rules as ActiveRecord::Base.exists?.
# [collection.build(attributes = {})]
@@ -1133,7 +1133,7 @@ def belongs_to(association_id, options = {})
# * <tt>Developer#projects.empty?</tt>
# * <tt>Developer#projects.size</tt>
# * <tt>Developer#projects.find(id)</tt>
- # * <tt>Developer#clients.exist?(...)</tt>
+ # * <tt>Developer#clients.exists?(...)</tt>
# * <tt>Developer#projects.build</tt> (similar to <tt>Project.new("project_id" => id)</tt>)
# * <tt>Developer#projects.create</tt> (similar to <tt>c = Project.new("project_id" => id); c.save; c</tt>)
# The declaration may include an options hash to specialize the behavior of the association.
View
3 activerecord/lib/active_record/base.rb
@@ -811,8 +811,7 @@ def destroy(id)
#
# ==== Parameters
#
- # * +updates+ - A string of column and value pairs that will be set on any records that match conditions.
- # What goes into the SET clause.
+ # * +updates+ - A string of column and value pairs that will be set on any records that match conditions. This creates the SET clause of the generated SQL.
# * +conditions+ - An SQL fragment like "administrator = 1" or [ "user_name = ?", username ]. See conditions in the intro for more info.
# * +options+ - Additional options are <tt>:limit</tt> and <tt>:order</tt>, see the examples for usage.
#
View
1 activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/connection_specification.rb
@@ -123,6 +123,7 @@ def retrieve_connection
connection_handler.retrieve_connection(self)
end
+ # Returns true if +ActiveRecord+ is connected.
def connected?
connection_handler.connected?(self)
end
View
4 activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb
@@ -32,10 +32,12 @@ def initialize(name, default, sql_type = nil, null = true)
@primary = nil
end
+ # Returns +true+ if the column is either of type string or text.
def text?
type == :string || type == :text
end
+ # Returns +true+ if the column is either of type integer, float or decimal.
def number?
type == :integer || type == :float || type == :decimal
end
@@ -295,7 +297,7 @@ def add_column_options!(sql, options)
# puts t.class # => "ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::TableDefinition"
# end
# end
- #
+ #
# def self.down
# ...
# end
View
6 activerecord/lib/active_record/validations.rb
@@ -1049,15 +1049,15 @@ def errors
protected
# Overwrite this method for validation checks on all saves and use <tt>Errors.add(field, msg)</tt> for invalid attributes.
- def validate #:doc:
+ def validate
end
# Overwrite this method for validation checks used only on creation.
- def validate_on_create #:doc:
+ def validate_on_create
end
# Overwrite this method for validation checks used only on updates.
- def validate_on_update # :doc:
+ def validate_on_update
end
end
end
View
81 railties/doc/guides/html/activerecord_validations_callbacks.html
@@ -231,7 +231,7 @@ <h2 id="site_title_tagline">Sustainable productivity for web-application develop
<li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_length_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_length_of</tt> helper</a></li>
- <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_numericallity_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_numericallity_of</tt> helper</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_numericality_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_numericality_of</tt> helper</a></li>
<li><a href="#_the_tt_validates_presence_of_tt_helper">The <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> helper</a></li>
@@ -338,7 +338,7 @@ <h2 id="site_title_tagline">Sustainable productivity for web-application develop
</li>
<li>
<p>
-Work with the error messages generated by the validation proccess
+Work with the error messages generated by the validation process
</p>
</li>
<li>
@@ -405,7 +405,7 @@ <h3 id="_when_does_validation_happens">2.1. When does validation happens?</h3>
&gt;&gt; p.new_record?
=&gt; false</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Saving new records means sending an SQL insert operation to the database, while saving existing records (by calling either <tt>save</tt> or <tt>update_attributes</tt>) will result in a SQL update operation. Active Record will use this facts to perform validations upon your objects, avoiding then to be recorded to the database if their inner state is invalid in some way. You can specify validations that will be beformed every time a object is saved, just when you're creating a new record or when you're updating an existing one.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Saving new records means sending an SQL insert operation to the database, while saving existing records (by calling either <tt>save</tt> or <tt>update_attributes</tt>) will result in a SQL update operation. Active Record will use these facts to perform validations upon your objects, avoiding then to be recorded to the database if their inner state is invalid in some way. You can specify validations that will be beformed every time a object is saved, just when you're creating a new record or when you're updating an existing one.</p></div>
<div class="admonitionblock">
<table><tr>
<td class="icon">
@@ -524,7 +524,8 @@ <h3 id="_the_tt_validates_exclusion_of_tt_helper">3.5. The <tt>validates_exclusi
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> MovieFile <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validates_exclusion_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>format<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">%</span>w<span style="color: #990000">(</span>mov avi<span style="color: #990000">),</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Extension %s is not allowed"</span>
+ validates_exclusion_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>format<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">%</span>w<span style="color: #990000">(</span>mov avi<span style="color: #990000">),</span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Extension %s is not allowed"</span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="para"><p>The <tt>validates_exclusion_of</tt> helper has an option <tt>:in</tt> that receives the set of values that will not be accepted for the validated attributes. The <tt>:in</tt> option has an alias called <tt>:within</tt> that you can use for the same purpose, if you'd like to. In the previous example we used the <tt>:message</tt> option to show how we can personalize it with the current attribute's value, through the <tt>%s</tt> format mask.</p></div>
@@ -537,7 +538,8 @@ <h3 id="_the_tt_validates_format_of_tt_helper">3.6. The <tt>validates_format_of<
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Product <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validates_format_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>description<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>with <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF6600">/^[a-zA-Z]+$/</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Only letters allowed"</span>
+ validates_format_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>description<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>with <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF6600">/^[a-zA-Z]+$/</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Only letters allowed"</span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_format_of</tt> is "<em>is invalid</em>".</p></div>
@@ -549,7 +551,8 @@ <h3 id="_the_tt_validates_inclusion_of_tt_helper">3.7. The <tt>validates_inclusi
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Coffee <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validates_inclusion_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>size<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">%</span>w<span style="color: #990000">(</span>small medium large<span style="color: #990000">),</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"%s is not a valid size"</span>
+ validates_inclusion_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>size<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">%</span>w<span style="color: #990000">(</span>small medium large<span style="color: #990000">),</span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"%s is not a valid size"</span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="para"><p>The <tt>validates_inclusion_of</tt> helper has an option <tt>:in</tt> that receives the set of values that will be accepted. The <tt>:in</tt> option has an alias called <tt>:within</tt> that you can use for the same purpose, if you'd like to. In the previous example we used the <tt>:message</tt> option to show how we can personalize it with the current attribute's value, through the <tt>%s</tt> format mask.</p></div>
@@ -602,7 +605,7 @@ <h3 id="_the_tt_validates_length_of_tt_helper">3.8. The <tt>validates_length_of<
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="para"><p>This helper has an alias called <tt>validates_size_of</tt>, it's the same helper with a different name. You can use it if you'd like to.</p></div>
-<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_numericallity_of_tt_helper">3.9. The <tt>validates_numericallity_of</tt> helper</h3>
+<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_numericality_of_tt_helper">3.9. The <tt>validates_numericality_of</tt> helper</h3>
<div class="para"><p>This helper validates that your attributes have only numeric values. By default, it will match an optional sign followed by a integral or floating point number. Using the <tt>:integer_only</tt> option set to true, you can specify that only integral numbers are allowed.</p></div>
<div class="para"><p>If you use <tt>:integer_only</tt> set to <tt>true</tt>, then it will use the <tt><span>/\A[+\-]?\d+\Z/</span></tt> regular expression to validate the attribute's value. Otherwise, it will try to convert the value using <tt>Kernel.Float</tt>.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
@@ -611,11 +614,11 @@ <h3 id="_the_tt_validates_numericallity_of_tt_helper">3.9. The <tt>validates_num
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Player <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validates_numericallity_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>points
- validates_numericallity_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>games_played<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>integer_only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">true</span></span>
+ validates_numericality_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>points
+ validates_numericality_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>games_played<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>integer_only <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">true</span></span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_numericallity_of</tt> is "<em>is not a number</em>".</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>The default error message for <tt>validates_numericality_of</tt> is "<em>is not a number</em>".</p></div>
<h3 id="_the_tt_validates_presence_of_tt_helper">3.10. The <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> helper</h3>
<div class="para"><p>This helper validates that the attributes are not empty. It uses the <tt>blank?</tt> method to check if the value is either <tt>nil</tt> or an empty string (if the string has only spaces, it will still be considered empty).</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
@@ -673,7 +676,8 @@ <h3 id="_the_tt_validates_uniqueness_of_tt_helper">3.11. The <tt>validates_uniqu
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Holiday <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validates_uniqueness_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>scope <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>year<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Should happen once per year"</span>
+ validates_uniqueness_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>scope <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>year<span style="color: #990000">,</span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">:</span>message <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Should happen once per year"</span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="para"><p>There is also a <tt>:case_sensitive</tt> option that you can use to define if the uniqueness contraint will be case sensitive or not. This option defaults to true.</p></div>
@@ -692,7 +696,7 @@ <h2 id="_common_validation_options">4. Common validation options</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="para"><p>There are some common options that all the validation helpers can use. Here they are, except for the <tt>:if</tt> and <tt>:unless</tt> options, which we'll cover right at the next topic.</p></div>
<h3 id="_the_tt_allow_nil_tt_option">4.1. The <tt>:allow_nil</tt> option</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>You may use the <tt>:allow_nil</tt> option everytime you just want to trigger a validation if the value being validated is not <tt>nil</tt>. You may be asking yourself if it makes any sense to use <tt>:allow_nil</tt> and <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> together. Well, it does. Remember, validation will be skipped only for <tt>nil</tt> attributes, but empty strings are not considered <tt>nil</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>You may use the <tt>:allow_nil</tt> option everytime you want to trigger a validation only if the value being validated is not <tt>nil</tt>. You may be asking yourself if it makes any sense to use <tt>:allow_nil</tt> and <tt>validates_presence_of</tt> together. Well, it does. Remember, validation will be skipped only for <tt>nil</tt> attributes, but empty strings are not considered <tt>nil</tt>.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
@@ -713,9 +717,14 @@ <h3 id="_the_tt_on_tt_option">4.3. The <tt>:on</tt> option</h3>
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Person <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validates_uniqueness_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>email<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; it will be possible to update email with a duplicated value</span></span>
- validates_numericallity_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>age<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>update <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; it will be possible to create the record with a 'non-numerical age'</span></span>
- validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>save <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; that's the default</span></span>
+ <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; it will be possible to update email with a duplicated value</span></span>
+ validates_uniqueness_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>email<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create
+
+ <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; it will be possible to create the record with a 'non-numerical age'</span></span>
+ validates_numericality_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>age<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>update
+
+ <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; the default</span></span>
+ validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>on <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>save
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
</div>
@@ -756,7 +765,8 @@ <h3 id="_using_a_proc_object_with_the_tt_if_tt_and_tt_unless_tt_options">5.3. Us
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Account <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validates_confirmation_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>password<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">unless</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> Proc<span style="color: #990000">.</span>new <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span> <span style="color: #990000">|</span>a<span style="color: #990000">|</span> a<span style="color: #990000">.</span>password<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="color: #FF0000">}</span>
+ validates_confirmation_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>password<span style="color: #990000">,</span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">:</span><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">unless</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> Proc<span style="color: #990000">.</span>new <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span> <span style="color: #990000">|</span>a<span style="color: #990000">|</span> a<span style="color: #990000">.</span>password<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="color: #FF0000">}</span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
</div>
@@ -770,7 +780,8 @@ <h2 id="_writing_your_own_validation_methods">6. Writing your own validation met
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Invoice <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> validate_on_create
- errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be in the past"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">!</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">and</span></span> expiration_date <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> Date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>today
+ errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be in the past"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">!</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">and</span></span> expiration_date <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> Date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>today
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
@@ -781,14 +792,17 @@ <h2 id="_writing_your_own_validation_methods">6. Writing your own validation met
http://www.lorenzobettini.it
http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Invoice <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validate <span style="color: #990000">:</span>expiration_date_cannot_be_in_the_past<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>discount_cannot_be_more_than_total_value
+ validate <span style="color: #990000">:</span>expiration_date_cannot_be_in_the_past<span style="color: #990000">,</span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">:</span>discount_cannot_be_more_than_total_value
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> expiration_date_cannot_be_in_the_past
- errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be in the past"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span> <span style="color: #990000">!</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">and</span></span> expiration_date <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> Date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>today
+ errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be in the past"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">if</span></span>
+ <span style="color: #990000">!</span>expiration_date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>blank? <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">and</span></span> expiration_date <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> Date<span style="color: #990000">.</span>today
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> discount_cannot_be_greater_than_total_value
- errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>discount<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be greater than total value"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">unless</span></span> discount <span style="color: #990000">&lt;=</span> total_value
+ errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>add<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>discount<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"can't be greater than total value"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">unless</span></span>
+ discount <span style="color: #990000">&lt;=</span> total_value
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
@@ -874,16 +888,18 @@ <h2 id="_using_the_tt_errors_tt_collection">7. Using the <tt>errors</tt> collect
person <span style="color: #990000">=</span> Person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>new<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>name <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"JD"</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span>
person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>valid? <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; false</span></span>
-person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>on<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; "is too short (minimum is 3 characters)"</span></span>
+person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>on<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">)</span>
+<span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; "is too short (minimum is 3 characters)"</span></span>
person <span style="color: #990000">=</span> Person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>new
person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>valid? <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; false</span></span>
-person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>on<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; ["can't be blank", "is too short (minimum is 3 characters)"]</span></span>
+person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>on<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">)</span>
+<span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; ["can't be blank", "is too short (minimum is 3 characters)"]</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<div class="ilist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
-<tt>clear</tt> is used when you intentionally wants to clear all the messages in the <tt>errors</tt> collection.
+<tt>clear</tt> is used when you intentionally want to clear all the messages in the <tt>errors</tt> collection. However, calling <tt>errors.clear</tt> upon an invalid object won't make it valid: the <tt>errors</tt> collection will now be empty, but the next time you call <tt>valid?</tt> or any method that tries to save this object to the database, the validations will run. If any of them fails, the <tt>errors</tt> collection will get filled again.
</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
@@ -898,10 +914,15 @@ <h2 id="_using_the_tt_errors_tt_collection">7. Using the <tt>errors</tt> collect
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
person <span style="color: #990000">=</span> Person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>new
-puts person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>valid? <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; false</span></span>
-person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>on<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; ["can't be blank", "is too short (minimum is 3 characters)"]</span></span>
+person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>valid? <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; false</span></span>
+person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>on<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">)</span>
+<span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; ["can't be blank", "is too short (minimum is 3 characters)"]</span></span>
+
person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>clear
-person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; nil</span></span>
+person<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>empty? <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; true</span></span>
+p<span style="color: #990000">.</span>save <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; false</span></span>
+p<span style="color: #990000">.</span>errors<span style="color: #990000">.</span>on<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>name<span style="color: #990000">)</span>
+<span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># =&gt; ["can't be blank", "is too short (minimum is 3 characters)"]</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
</div>
<h2 id="_callbacks">8. Callbacks</h2>
@@ -910,7 +931,7 @@ <h2 id="_callbacks">8. Callbacks</h2>
<h3 id="_callbacks_registration">8.1. Callbacks registration</h3>
<div class="para"><p>In order to use the available callbacks, you need to registrate them. There are two ways of doing that.</p></div>
<h3 id="_registering_callbacks_by_overriding_the_callback_methods">8.2. Registering callbacks by overriding the callback methods</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>You can specify the callback method direcly, by overriding it. Let's see how it works using the <tt>before_validation</tt> callback, which will surprisingly run right before any validation is done.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>You can specify the callback method directly, by overriding it. Let's see how it works using the <tt>before_validation</tt> callback, which will surprisingly run right before any validation is done.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
@@ -1094,7 +1115,7 @@ <h3 id="_the_tt_after_initialize_tt_and_tt_after_find_tt_callbacks">9.5. The <tt
</div>
<h2 id="_halting_execution">10. Halting Execution</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
-<div class="para"><p>As you start registering new callbacks for your models, they will be queued for execution. This queue will include all your model's validations, the registered callbacks and the database operation to be executed. However, if at any moment one of the callback methods returns a boolean <tt>false</tt> (not <tt>nil</tt>) value, this execution chain will be halted and the desired operation will not complete: your model will not get persisted in the database, or your records will not get deleted and so on.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>As you start registering new callbacks for your models, they will be queued for execution. This queue will include all your model's validations, the registered callbacks and the database operation to be executed. However, if at any moment one of the <tt>before_create</tt>, <tt>before_save</tt>, <tt>before_update</tt> or <tt>before_destroy</tt> callback methods returns a boolean <tt>false</tt> (not <tt>nil</tt>) value, this execution chain will be halted and the desired operation will not complete: your model will not get persisted in the database, or your records will not get deleted and so on.</p></div>
</div>
<h2 id="_callback_classes">11. Callback classes</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
@@ -1174,7 +1195,7 @@ <h2 id="_observers">12. Observers</h2>
<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
</tt></pre></div></div>
<h3 id="_registering_observers">12.1. Registering observers</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>If you payed attention, you may be wondering where Active Record Observers are referenced in our applications, so they get instantiate and begin to interact with our models. For observers to work we need to register then in our application's <strong>config/environment.rb</strong> file. In this file there is a commented out line where we can define the observers that our application should load at start-up.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>If you payed attention, you may be wondering where Active Record Observers are referenced in our applications, so they get instantiate and begin to interact with our models. For observers to work we need to register them somewhere. The usual place to do that is in our application's <strong>config/environment.rb</strong> file. In this file there is a commented out line where we can define the observers that our application should load at start-up.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
@@ -1183,6 +1204,8 @@ <h3 id="_registering_observers">12.1. Registering observers</h3>
<pre><tt><span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># Activate observers that should always be running</span></span>
config<span style="color: #990000">.</span>active_record<span style="color: #990000">.</span>observers <span style="color: #990000">=</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>registration_observer<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>auditor
</tt></pre></div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>You can uncomment the line with <tt>config.active_record.observers</tt> and change the symbols for the name of the observers that should be registered.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>It's also possible to register callbacks in any of the files living at <strong>config/environments/</strong>, if you want an observer to work only in a specific environment. There is not a <tt>config.active_record.observers</tt> line at any of those files, but you can simply add it.</p></div>
<h3 id="_where_to_put_the_observers_source_files">12.2. Where to put the observers' source files</h3>
<div class="para"><p>By convention, you should always save your observers' source files inside <strong>app/models</strong>.</p></div>
</div>
View
6 railties/doc/guides/html/finders.html
@@ -609,6 +609,7 @@ <h2 id="_ordering">5. Ordering</h2>
<h2 id="_selecting_certain_fields">6. Selecting Certain Fields</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="para"><p>To select certain fields, you can use the select option like this: <tt>Client.first(:select &#8658; "viewable_by, locked")</tt>. This select option does not use an array of fields, but rather requires you to type SQL-like code. The above code will execute <tt>SELECT viewable_by, locked FROM clients LIMIT 0,1</tt> on your database.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>You can also call SQL functions within the select option. For example, if you would like to only grab a single record per unique value in a certain field by using the <tt>DISTINCT</tt> function you can do it like this: <tt>Client.all(:select &#8658; "DISTINCT(name)")</tt>.</p></div>
</div>
<h2 id="_limit_amp_offset">7. Limit &amp; Offset</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
@@ -1051,6 +1052,11 @@ <h2 id="_changelog">21. Changelog</h2>
<div class="ilist"><ul>
<li>
<p>
+December 1 2008: Added using an SQL function example to Selecting Certain Fields section as per <a href="http://rails.lighthouseapp.com/projects/16213/tickets/36-adding-an-example-for-using-distinct-to-ar-finders">this ticket</a>
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
November 23 2008: Added documentation for <tt>find_by_last</tt> and <tt>find_by_bang!</tt>
</p>
</li>
View
2 railties/doc/guides/html/getting_started_with_rails.html
@@ -1723,7 +1723,7 @@ <h3 id="_adding_a_route">8.3. Adding a Route</h3>
<td class="icon">
<img src="./images/icons/tip.png" alt="Tip" />
</td>
-<td class="content">For more information on routing, see the <a href="../routing_outside_in">Rails Routing from the Outside In</a> guide.</td>
+<td class="content">For more information on routing, see the <a href="../routing_outside_in.html">Rails Routing from the Outside In</a> guide.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
<h3 id="_generating_a_controller">8.4. Generating a Controller</h3>
View
2 railties/doc/guides/html/layouts_and_rendering.html
@@ -642,7 +642,7 @@ <h5 id="_conditional_layouts">Conditional Layouts</h5>
<div class="para"><p>With those declarations, the <tt>inventory</tt> layout would be used only for the <tt>index</tt> method, the <tt>product</tt> layout would be used for everything else except the <tt>rss</tt> method, and the <tt>rss</tt> method will have its layout determined by the automatic layout rules.</p></div>
<h5 id="_layout_inheritance">Layout Inheritance</h5>
<div class="para"><p>Layouts are shared downwards in the hierarchy, and more specific layouts always override more general ones. For example:</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p><tt>application.rb</tt>:</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p><tt>application_controller.rb</tt>:</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
by Lorenzo Bettini
View
1,470 railties/doc/guides/html/testing_rails_applications.html
@@ -219,48 +219,9 @@ <h2 id="site_title_tagline">Sustainable productivity for web-application develop
<li><a href="#_preparing_you_application_for_testing">Preparing you Application for Testing</a></li>
- <li><a href="#_running_tests">Running Tests</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_what_to_include_in_your_unit_tests">What to Include in Your Unit Tests</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_assertions_available">Assertions Available</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_rails_specific_assertions">Rails Specific Assertions</a></li>
-
- </ul>
- </li>
- <li>
- <a href="#_functional_tests_for_your_controllers">Functional Tests for Your Controllers</a>
- <ul>
-
- <li><a href="#_what_to_include_in_your_functional_tests">What to include in your Functional Tests</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_available_request_types_for_functional_tests">Available Request Types for Functional Tests</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_the_4_hashes_of_the_apocalypse">The 4 Hashes of the Apocalypse</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_instance_variables_available">Instance Variables Available</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_a_fuller_functional_test_example">A Fuller Functional Test Example</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_testing_views">Testing Views</a></li>
-
- </ul>
- </li>
- <li>
- <a href="#_integration_testing">Integration Testing</a>
- <ul>
-
- <li><a href="#_helpers_available_for_integration_tests">Helpers Available for Integration tests</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="#_integration_testing_examples">Integration Testing Examples</a></li>
-
</ul>
</li>
<li>
- <a href="#_rake_tasks_for_running_your_tests">Rake Tasks for Running your Tests</a>
- </li>
- <li>
<a href="#_brief_note_about_test_unit">Brief Note About Test::Unit</a>
</li>
<li>
@@ -585,994 +546,595 @@ <h3 id="_preparing_you_application_for_testing">3.1. Preparing you Application f
<td class="content"><tt>db:test:prepare</tt> will fail with an error if db/schema.rb doesn't exists.</td>
</tr></table>
</div>
-<h4 id="_rake_tasks_for_preparing_you_application_for_testing">3.1.1. Rake Tasks for Preparing you Application for Testing ==</h4>
-<div class="para"><p>--------------------------------`----------------------------------------------------
-Tasks Description</p></div>
+<h4 id="_rake_tasks_for_preparing_your_application_for_testing">3.1.1. Rake Tasks for Preparing your Application for Testing</h4>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
-<pre><tt>+rake db:test:clone+ Recreate the test database from the current environment's database schema
-+rake db:test:clone_structure+ Recreate the test databases from the development structure
-+rake db:test:load+ Recreate the test database from the current +schema.rb+
-+rake db:test:prepare+ Check for pending migrations and load the test schema
-+rake db:test:purge+ Empty the test database.</tt></pre>
+<pre><tt>Tasks Description</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="admonitionblock">
-<table><tr>
-<td class="icon">
-<img src="./images/icons/tip.png" alt="Tip" />
-</td>
-<td class="content">You can see all these rake tasks and their descriptions by running <tt>rake &#8212;tasks &#8212;describe</tt></td>
-</tr></table>
-</div>
-<h3 id="_running_tests">3.2. Running Tests</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>Running a test is as simple as invoking the file containing the test cases through Ruby:</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p><tt>rake db:test:clone</tt> Recreate the test database from the current environment's database schema
+<tt>rake db:test:clone_structure</tt> Recreate the test databases from the development structure
+<tt>rake db:test:load</tt> Recreate the test database from the current <tt>schema.rb</tt>
+<tt>rake db:test:prepare</tt> Check for pending migrations and load the test schema
+<tt>rake db:test:purge</tt> Empty the test database.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt>$ cd <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">test</span></span>
-$ ruby unit/post_test<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+TIP: You can see all these rake tasks and their descriptions by running +rake \-\-tasks \-\-describe+
-Loaded suite unit/post_test
-Started
-<span style="color: #990000">.</span>
-Finished <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">in</span></span> <span style="color: #993399">0.023513</span> seconds<span style="color: #990000">.</span>
+=== Running Tests ===
-<span style="color: #993399">1</span> tests<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #993399">1</span> assertions<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #993399">0</span> failures<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #993399">0</span> errors
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>This will run all the test methods from the test case.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>You can also run a particular test method from the test case by using the <tt>-n</tt> switch with the <tt>test method name</tt>.</p></div>
+Running a test is as simple as invoking the file containing the test cases through Ruby:
+
+[source, shell]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>$ cd test
+$ ruby unit/post_test.rb</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Loaded suite unit/post_test
+Started
+.
+Finished in 0.023513 seconds.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>1 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
-<pre><tt>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_truth
+<pre><tt>
+This will run all the test methods from the test case.
-Loaded suite unit/post_test
+You can also run a particular test method from the test case by using the +-n+ switch with the +test method name+.</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_truth</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>Loaded suite unit/post_test
Started
.
-Finished in 0.023513 seconds.
+Finished in 0.023513 seconds.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>1 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+The +.+ (dot) above indicates a passing test. When a test fails you see an +F+; when a test throws an error you see an +E+ in its place. The last line of the output is the summary.
-1 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors</tt></pre>
+To see how a test failure is reported, you can add a failing test to the +post_test.rb+ test case.
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The <tt>.</tt> (dot) above indicates a passing test. When a test fails you see an <tt>F</tt>; when a test throws an error you see an <tt>E</tt> in its place. The last line of the output is the summary.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>To see how a test failure is reported, you can add a failing test to the <tt>post_test.rb</tt> test case.</p></div>
-<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> test_should_not_save_post_without_title
- post <span style="color: #990000">=</span> Post<span style="color: #990000">.</span>new
- assert <span style="color: #990000">!</span>post<span style="color: #990000">.</span>save
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Let us run this newly added test.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>def test_should_not_save_post_without_title
+ post = Post.new
+ assert !post.save
+end</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
-<pre><tt>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_should_not_save_post_without_title
+<pre><tt>
+Let us run this newly added test.</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_should_not_save_post_without_title
Loaded suite unit/post_test
Started
F
-Finished in 0.197094 seconds.
-
- 1) Failure:
+Finished in 0.197094 seconds.</p></div>
+<div class="literalblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt> 1) Failure:
test_should_not_save_post_without_title(PostTest)
[unit/post_test.rb:11:in `test_should_not_save_post_without_title'
/opt/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/activesupport-2.1.1/lib/active_support/testing/setup_and_teardown.rb:33:in `__send__'
/opt/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/activesupport-2.1.1/lib/active_support/testing/setup_and_teardown.rb:33:in `run']:
-&lt;false&gt; is not true.
-
-1 tests, 1 assertions, 1 failures, 0 errors</tt></pre>
+&lt;false&gt; is not true.</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>In the output, <tt>F</tt> denotes a failure. You can see the corresponding trace shown under <tt>1)</tt> along with the name of the failing test. The next few lines contain the stack trace followed by a message which mentions the actual value and the expected value by the assertion. The default assertion messages provide just enough information to help pinpoint the error. To make the assertion failure message more readable every assertion provides an optional message parameter, as shown here:</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>1 tests, 1 assertions, 1 failures, 0 errors</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> test_should_not_save_post_without_title
- post <span style="color: #990000">=</span> Post<span style="color: #990000">.</span>new
- assert <span style="color: #990000">!</span>post<span style="color: #990000">.</span>save<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Saved the post without a title"</span>
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Running this test shows the friendlier assertion message:</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+In the output, +F+ denotes a failure. You can see the corresponding trace shown under +1)+ along with the name of the failing test. The next few lines contain the stack trace followed by a message which mentions the actual value and the expected value by the assertion. The default assertion messages provide just enough information to help pinpoint the error. To make the assertion failure message more readable every assertion provides an optional message parameter, as shown here:
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>def test_should_not_save_post_without_title
+ post = Post.new
+ assert !post.save, "Saved the post without a title"
+end</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
-<pre><tt>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_should_not_save_post_without_title
+<pre><tt>
+Running this test shows the friendlier assertion message:</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_should_not_save_post_without_title
Loaded suite unit/post_test
Started
F
-Finished in 0.198093 seconds.
-
- 1) Failure:
+Finished in 0.198093 seconds.</p></div>
+<div class="literalblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt> 1) Failure:
test_should_not_save_post_without_title(PostTest)
[unit/post_test.rb:11:in `test_should_not_save_post_without_title'
/opt/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/activesupport-2.1.1/lib/active_support/testing/setup_and_teardown.rb:33:in `__send__'
/opt/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/activesupport-2.1.1/lib/active_support/testing/setup_and_teardown.rb:33:in `run']:
Saved the post without a title.
-&lt;false&gt; is not true.
-
-1 tests, 1 assertions, 1 failures, 0 errors</tt></pre>
+&lt;false&gt; is not true.</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Now to get this test to pass we can add a model level validation for the <em>title</em> field.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>1 tests, 1 assertions, 1 failures, 0 errors</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> Post <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActiveRecord<span style="color: #990000">::</span>Base
- validates_presence_of <span style="color: #990000">:</span>title
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Now the test should pass. Let us verify by running the test again:</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+Now to get this test to pass we can add a model level validation for the _title_ field.
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>class Post &lt; ActiveRecord::Base
+ validates_presence_of :title
+end</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
-<pre><tt>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_should_not_save_post_without_title
+<pre><tt>
+Now the test should pass. Let us verify by running the test again:</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_should_not_save_post_without_title
Loaded suite unit/post_test
Started
.
-Finished in 0.193608 seconds.
+Finished in 0.193608 seconds.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>1 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors</p></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+Now if you noticed we first wrote a test which fails for a desired functionality, then we wrote some code which adds the functionality and finally we ensured that our test passes. This approach to software development is referred to as _Test-Driven Development_ (TDD).
-1 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors</tt></pre>
+TIP: Many Rails developers practice _Test-Driven Development_ (TDD). This is an excellent way to build up a test suite that exercises every part of your application. TDD is beyond the scope of this guide, but one place to start is with link:http://andrzejonsoftware.blogspot.com/2007/05/15-tdd-steps-to-create-rails.html[15 TDD steps to create a Rails application].
+
+To see how an error gets reported, here's a test containing an error:
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Now if you noticed we first wrote a test which fails for a desired functionality, then we wrote some code which adds the functionality and finally we ensured that our test passes. This approach to software development is referred to as <em>Test-Driven Development</em> (TDD).</p></div>
-<div class="admonitionblock">
-<table><tr>
-<td class="icon">
-<img src="./images/icons/tip.png" alt="Tip" />
-</td>
-<td class="content">Many Rails developers practice <em>Test-Driven Development</em> (TDD). This is an excellent way to build up a test suite that exercises every part of your application. TDD is beyond the scope of this guide, but one place to start is with <a href="http://andrzejonsoftware.blogspot.com/2007/05/15-tdd-steps-to-create-rails.html">15 TDD steps to create a Rails application</a>.</td>
-</tr></table>
-</div>
-<div class="para"><p>To see how an error gets reported, here's a test containing an error:</p></div>
-<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> test_should_report_error
- <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># some_undefined_variable is not defined elsewhere in the test case</span></span>
+<div class="para"><p>def test_should_report_error
+ # some_undefined_variable is not defined elsewhere in the test case
some_undefined_variable
- assert <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">true</span></span>
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Now you can see even more output in the console from running the tests:</p></div>
+ assert true
+end</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
-<pre><tt>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_should_report_error
+<pre><tt>
+Now you can see even more output in the console from running the tests:</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>$ ruby unit/post_test.rb -n test_should_report_error
Loaded suite unit/post_test
Started
E
-Finished in 0.195757 seconds.
-
- 1) Error:
+Finished in 0.195757 seconds.</p></div>
+<div class="literalblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt> 1) Error:
test_should_report_error(PostTest):
NameError: undefined local variable or method `some_undefined_variable' for #&lt;PostTest:0x2cc9de8&gt;
/opt/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/actionpack-2.1.1/lib/action_controller/test_process.rb:467:in `method_missing'
unit/post_test.rb:16:in `test_should_report_error'
/opt/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/activesupport-2.1.1/lib/active_support/testing/setup_and_teardown.rb:33:in `__send__'
- /opt/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/activesupport-2.1.1/lib/active_support/testing/setup_and_teardown.rb:33:in `run'
-
-1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors</tt></pre>
+ /opt/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/activesupport-2.1.1/lib/active_support/testing/setup_and_teardown.rb:33:in `run'</tt></pre>
</div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Notice the <em>E</em> in the output. It denotes a test with error.</p></div>
-<div class="admonitionblock">
-<table><tr>
-<td class="icon">
-<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
-</td>
-<td class="content">The execution of each test method stops as soon as any error or a assertion failure is encountered, and the test suite continues with the next method. All test methods are executed in alphabetical order.</td>
-</tr></table>
-</div>
-<h3 id="_what_to_include_in_your_unit_tests">3.3. What to Include in Your Unit Tests</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>Ideally you would like to include a test for everything which could possibly break. It's a good practice to have at least one test for each of your validations and at least one test for every method in your model.</p></div>
-<h3 id="_assertions_available">3.4. Assertions Available</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>By now you've caught a glimpse of some of the assertions that are available. Assertions are the worker bees of testing. They are the ones that actually perform the checks to ensure that things are going as planned.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>There are a bunch of different types of assertions you can use. Here's the complete list of assertions that ship with <tt>test/unit</tt>, the testing library used by Rails. The <tt>[msg]</tt> parameter is an optional string message you can specify to make your test failure messages clearer. It's not required.</p></div>
-<div class="tableblock">
-<table rules="all"
-frame="hsides"
-cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4">
-<col width="754" />
-<col width="834" />
-<thead>
- <tr>
- <th align="left">
- Assertion
- </th>
- <th align="left">
- Purpose
- </th>
- </tr>
-</thead>
-<tbody valign="top">
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert( boolean, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that the object/expression is true.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_equal( obj1, obj2, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj1 == obj2</tt> is true.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_not_equal( obj1, obj2, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj1 == obj2</tt> is false.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_same( obj1, obj2, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj1.equal?(obj2)</tt> is true.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_not_same( obj1, obj2, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj1.equal?(obj2)</tt> is false.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_nil( obj, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj.nil?</tt> is true.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_not_nil( obj, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj.nil?</tt> is false.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_match( regexp, string, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that a string matches the regular expression.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_no_match( regexp, string, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that a string doesn't matches the regular expression.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_in_delta( expecting, actual, delta, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that the numbers <tt>expecting</tt> and <tt>actual</tt> are within <tt>delta</tt> of each other.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_throws( symbol, [msg] ) { block }</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that the given block throws the symbol.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_raises( exception1, exception2, &#8230; ) { block }</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that the given block raises one of the given exceptions.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_nothing_raised( exception1, exception2, &#8230; ) { block }</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that the given block doesn't raise one of the given exceptions.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_instance_of( class, obj, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj</tt> is of the <tt>class</tt> type.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_kind_of( class, obj, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj</tt> is or descends from <tt>class</tt>.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_respond_to( obj, symbol, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj</tt> has a method called <tt>symbol</tt>.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_operator( obj1, operator, obj2, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that <tt>obj1.operator(obj2)</tt> is true.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_send( array, [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that executing the method listed in <tt>array[1]</tt> on the object in <tt>array[0]</tt> with the parameters of <tt>array[2 and up]</tt> is true. This one is weird eh?
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>flunk( [msg] )</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures failure. This is useful to explicitly mark a test that isn't finished yet.
- </td>
- </tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-<div class="para"><p>Because of the modular nature of the testing framework, it is possible to create your own assertions. In fact, that's exactly what Rails does. It includes some specialized assertions to make your life easier.</p></div>
-<div class="admonitionblock">
-<table><tr>
-<td class="icon">
-<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
-</td>
-<td class="content">Creating your own assertions is an advanced topic that we won't cover in this tutorial.</td>
-</tr></table>
-</div>
-<h3 id="_rails_specific_assertions">3.5. Rails Specific Assertions</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>Rails adds some custom assertions of its own to the <tt>test/unit</tt> framework:</p></div>
-<div class="tableblock">
-<table rules="all"
-frame="hsides"
-cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4">
-<col width="948" />
-<col width="640" />
-<thead>
- <tr>
- <th align="left">
- Assertion
- </th>
- <th align="left">
- Purpose
- </th>
- </tr>
-</thead>
-<tbody valign="top">
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_valid(record)</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Ensures that the passed record is valid by Active Record standards and returns any error messages if it is not.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_difference(expressions, difference = 1, message = nil) {|| &#8230;}</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Test numeric difference between the return value of an expression as a result of what is evaluated in the yielded block.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_no_difference(expressions, message = nil, &amp;block)</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Asserts that the numeric result of evaluating an expression is not changed before and after invoking the passed in block.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_recognizes(expected_options, path, extras={}, message=nil)</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Asserts that the routing of the given path was handled correctly and that the parsed options (given in the expected_options hash) match path. Basically, it asserts that Rails recognizes the route given by expected_options.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_generates(expected_path, options, defaults={}, extras = {}, message=nil)</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Asserts that the provided options can be used to generate the provided path. This is the inverse of assert_recognizes. The extras parameter is used to tell the request the names and values of additional request parameters that would be in a query string. The message parameter allows you to specify a custom error message for assertion failures.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_response(type, message = nil)</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Asserts that the response comes with a specific status code. You can specify <tt>:success</tt> to indicate 200, <tt>:redirect</tt> to indicate 300-399, <tt>:missing</tt> to indicate 404, or <tt>:error</tt> to match the 500-599 range
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_redirected_to(options = {}, message=nil)</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Assert that the redirection options passed in match those of the redirect called in the latest action. This match can be partial, such that <tt>assert_redirected_to(:controller &#8658; "weblog")</tt> will also match the redirection of <tt>redirect_to(:controller &#8658; "weblog", :action &#8658; "show")</tt> and so on.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_template(expected = nil, message=nil)</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Asserts that the request was rendered with the appropriate template file.
- </td>
- </tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-<div class="para"><p>You'll see the usage of some of these assertions in the next chapter.</p></div>
-</div>
-<h2 id="_functional_tests_for_your_controllers">4. Functional Tests for Your Controllers</h2>
-<div class="sectionbody">
-<div class="para"><p>In Rails, testing the various actions of a single controller is called writing functional tests for that controller. Controllers handle the incoming web requests to your application and eventually respond with a rendered view.</p></div>
-<h3 id="_what_to_include_in_your_functional_tests">4.1. What to include in your Functional Tests</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>You should test for things such as:</p></div>
-<div class="ilist"><ul>
-<li>
-<p>
-was the web request successful?
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-was the user redirected to the right page?
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-was the user successfully authenticated?
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-was the correct object stored in the response template?
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-was the appropriate message displayed to the user in the view
-</p>
-</li>
-</ul></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Now that we have used Rails scaffold generator for our <tt>Post</tt> resource, it has already created the controller code and functional tests. You can take look at the file <tt>posts_controller_test.rb</tt> in the <tt>test/functional</tt> directory.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Let me take you through one such test, <tt>test_should_get_index</tt> from the file <tt>posts_controller_test.rb</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="para"><p>1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> test_should_get_index
- get <span style="color: #990000">:</span>index
- assert_response <span style="color: #990000">:</span>success
- assert_not_nil assigns<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>posts<span style="color: #990000">)</span>
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>In the <tt>test_should_get_index</tt> test, Rails simulates a request on the action called index, making sure the request was successful and also ensuring that it assigns a valid <tt>posts</tt> instance variable.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The <tt>get</tt> method kicks off the web request and populates the results into the response. It accepts 4 arguments:</p></div>
-<div class="ilist"><ul>
-<li>
-<p>
-The action of the controller you are requesting. This can be in the form of a string or a symbol.
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-An optional hash of request parameters to pass into the action (eg. query string parameters or post variables).
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-An optional hash of session variables to pass along with the request.
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-An optional hash of flash values.
-</p>
-</li>
-</ul></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Example: Calling the <tt>:show</tt> action, passing an <tt>id</tt> of 12 as the <tt>params</tt> and setting a <tt>user_id</tt> of 5 in the session:</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+Notice the 'E' in the output. It denotes a test with error.
+
+NOTE: The execution of each test method stops as soon as any error or a assertion failure is encountered, and the test suite continues with the next method. All test methods are executed in alphabetical order.
+
+=== What to Include in Your Unit Tests ===
+
+Ideally you would like to include a test for everything which could possibly break. It's a good practice to have at least one test for each of your validations and at least one test for every method in your model.
+
+=== Assertions Available ===
+
+By now you've caught a glimpse of some of the assertions that are available. Assertions are the worker bees of testing. They are the ones that actually perform the checks to ensure that things are going as planned.
+
+There are a bunch of different types of assertions you can use. Here's the complete list of assertions that ship with +test/unit+, the testing library used by Rails. The +[msg]+ parameter is an optional string message you can specify to make your test failure messages clearer. It's not required.
+
+[grid="all"]
+`-----------------------------------------------------------------`------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Assertion Purpose</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p><tt>assert( boolean, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that the object/expression is true.
+<tt>assert_equal( obj1, obj2, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj1 == obj2</tt> is true.
+<tt>assert_not_equal( obj1, obj2, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj1 == obj2</tt> is false.
+<tt>assert_same( obj1, obj2, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj1.equal?(obj2)</tt> is true.
+<tt>assert_not_same( obj1, obj2, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj1.equal?(obj2)</tt> is false.
+<tt>assert_nil( obj, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj.nil?</tt> is true.
+<tt>assert_not_nil( obj, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj.nil?</tt> is false.
+<tt>assert_match( regexp, string, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that a string matches the regular expression.
+<tt>assert_no_match( regexp, string, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that a string doesn't matches the regular expression.
+<tt>assert_in_delta( expecting, actual, delta, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that the numbers <tt>expecting</tt> and <tt>actual</tt> are within <tt>delta</tt> of each other.
+<tt>assert_throws( symbol, [msg] ) { block }</tt> Ensures that the given block throws the symbol.
+<tt>assert_raises( exception1, exception2, &#8230; ) { block }</tt> Ensures that the given block raises one of the given exceptions.
+<tt>assert_nothing_raised( exception1, exception2, &#8230; ) { block }</tt> Ensures that the given block doesn't raise one of the given exceptions.
+<tt>assert_instance_of( class, obj, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj</tt> is of the <tt>class</tt> type.
+<tt>assert_kind_of( class, obj, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj</tt> is or descends from <tt>class</tt>.
+<tt>assert_respond_to( obj, symbol, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj</tt> has a method called <tt>symbol</tt>.
+<tt>assert_operator( obj1, operator, obj2, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that <tt>obj1.operator(obj2)</tt> is true.
+<tt>assert_send( array, [msg] )</tt> Ensures that executing the method listed in <tt>array[1]</tt> on the object in <tt>array[0]</tt> with the parameters of <tt>array[2 and up]</tt> is true. This one is weird eh?
+<tt>flunk( [msg] )</tt> Ensures failure. This is useful to explicitly mark a test that isn't finished yet.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt>get<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>show<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span><span style="color: #FF0000">'id'</span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"12"</span><span style="color: #FF0000">}</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span><span style="color: #FF0000">'user_id'</span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #993399">5</span><span style="color: #FF0000">}</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Another example: Calling the <tt>:view</tt> action, passing an <tt>id</tt> of 12 as the <tt>params</tt>, this time with no session, but with a flash message.</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+Because of the modular nature of the testing framework, it is possible to create your own assertions. In fact, that's exactly what Rails does. It includes some specialized assertions to make your life easier.
+
+NOTE: Creating your own assertions is an advanced topic that we won't cover in this tutorial.
+
+=== Rails Specific Assertions ===
+
+Rails adds some custom assertions of its own to the +test/unit+ framework:
+
+[grid="all"]
+`----------------------------------------------------------------------------------`-------------------------------------------------------
+Assertion Purpose</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p><tt>assert_valid(record)</tt> Ensures that the passed record is valid by Active Record standards and returns any error messages if it is not.
+<tt>assert_difference(expressions, difference = 1, message = nil) {|| &#8230;}</tt> Test numeric difference between the return value of an expression as a result of what is evaluated in the yielded block.
+<tt>assert_no_difference(expressions, message = nil, &amp;block)</tt> Asserts that the numeric result of evaluating an expression is not changed before and after invoking the passed in block.
+<tt>assert_recognizes(expected_options, path, extras={}, message=nil)</tt> Asserts that the routing of the given path was handled correctly and that the parsed options (given in the expected_options hash) match path. Basically, it asserts that Rails recognizes the route given by expected_options.
+<tt>assert_generates(expected_path, options, defaults={}, extras = {}, message=nil)</tt> Asserts that the provided options can be used to generate the provided path. This is the inverse of assert_recognizes. The extras parameter is used to tell the request the names and values of additional request parameters that would be in a query string. The message parameter allows you to specify a custom error message for assertion failures.
+<tt>assert_response(type, message = nil)</tt> Asserts that the response comes with a specific status code. You can specify <tt>:success</tt> to indicate 200, <tt>:redirect</tt> to indicate 300-399, <tt>:missing</tt> to indicate 404, or <tt>:error</tt> to match the 500-599 range
+<tt>assert_redirected_to(options = {}, message=nil)</tt> Assert that the redirection options passed in match those of the redirect called in the latest action. This match can be partial, such that <tt>assert_redirected_to(:controller &#8658; "weblog")</tt> will also match the redirection of <tt>redirect_to(:controller &#8658; "weblog", :action &#8658; "show")</tt> and so on.
+<tt>assert_template(expected = nil, message=nil)</tt> Asserts that the request was rendered with the appropriate template file.</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt>get<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>view<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span><span style="color: #FF0000">'id'</span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'12'</span><span style="color: #FF0000">}</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">nil</span></span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span><span style="color: #FF0000">'message'</span> <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'booya!'</span><span style="color: #FF0000">}</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="admonitionblock">
-<table><tr>
-<td class="icon">
-<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
-</td>
-<td class="content">If you try running <tt>test_should_create_post</tt> test from <tt>posts_controller_test.rb</tt> it will fail on account of the newly added model level validation and rightly so.</td>
-</tr></table>
-</div>
-<div class="para"><p>Let us modify <tt>test_should_create_post</tt> test in <tt>posts_controller_test.rb</tt> so that all our test pass:</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+You'll see the usage of some of these assertions in the next chapter.
+
+== Functional Tests for Your Controllers ==
+
+In Rails, testing the various actions of a single controller is called writing functional tests for that controller. Controllers handle the incoming web requests to your application and eventually respond with a rendered view.
+
+=== What to include in your Functional Tests ===
+
+You should test for things such as:
+
+ * was the web request successful?
+ * was the user redirected to the right page?
+ * was the user successfully authenticated?
+ * was the correct object stored in the response template?
+ * was the appropriate message displayed to the user in the view
+
+Now that we have used Rails scaffold generator for our +Post+ resource, it has already created the controller code and functional tests. You can take look at the file +posts_controller_test.rb+ in the +test/functional+ directory.
+
+Let me take you through one such test, +test_should_get_index+ from the file +posts_controller_test.rb+.
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>def test_should_get_index
+ get :index
+ assert_response :success
+ assert_not_nil assigns(:posts)
+end</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> test_should_create_post
- assert_difference<span style="color: #990000">(</span><span style="color: #FF0000">'Post.count'</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">do</span></span>
- post <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>post <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>title <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'Some title'</span><span style="color: #FF0000">}</span>
- <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+In the +test_should_get_index+ test, Rails simulates a request on the action called index, making sure the request was successful and also ensuring that it assigns a valid +posts+ instance variable.
- assert_redirected_to post_path<span style="color: #990000">(</span>assigns<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>post<span style="color: #990000">))</span>
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Now you can try running all the tests and they should pass.</p></div>
-<h3 id="_available_request_types_for_functional_tests">4.2. Available Request Types for Functional Tests</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>If you're familiar with the HTTP protocol, you'll know that <tt>get</tt> is a type of request. There are 5 request types supported in Rails functional tests:</p></div>
-<div class="ilist"><ul>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>get</tt>
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>post</tt>
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>put</tt>
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>head</tt>
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>delete</tt>
-</p>
-</li>
-</ul></div>
-<div class="para"><p>All of request types are methods that you can use, however, you'll probably end up using the first two more often than the others.</p></div>
-<h3 id="_the_4_hashes_of_the_apocalypse">4.3. The 4 Hashes of the Apocalypse</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>After a request has been made by using one of the 5 methods (<tt>get</tt>, <tt>post</tt>, etc.) and processed, you will have 4 Hash objects ready for use:</p></div>
-<div class="ilist"><ul>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>assigns</tt> - Any objects that are stored as instance variables in actions for use in views.
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>cookies</tt> - Any cookies that are set.
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>flash</tt> - Any objects living in the flash.
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>session</tt> - Any object living in session variables.
-</p>
-</li>
-</ul></div>
-<div class="para"><p>As is the case with normal Hash objects, you can access the values by referencing the keys by string. You can also reference them by symbol name, except for <tt>assigns</tt>. For example:</p></div>
+The +get+ method kicks off the web request and populates the results into the response. It accepts 4 arguments:
+
+* The action of the controller you are requesting. This can be in the form of a string or a symbol.
+* An optional hash of request parameters to pass into the action (eg. query string parameters or post variables).
+* An optional hash of session variables to pass along with the request.
+* An optional hash of flash values.
+
+Example: Calling the +:show+ action, passing an +id+ of 12 as the +params+ and setting a +user_id+ of 5 in the session:
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>get(:show, {<em>id</em> &#8658; "12"}, {<em>user_id</em> &#8658; 5})</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt> flash<span style="color: #990000">[</span><span style="color: #FF0000">"gordon"</span><span style="color: #990000">]</span> flash<span style="color: #990000">[:</span>gordon<span style="color: #990000">]</span>
- session<span style="color: #990000">[</span><span style="color: #FF0000">"shmession"</span><span style="color: #990000">]</span> session<span style="color: #990000">[:</span>shmession<span style="color: #990000">]</span>
- cookies<span style="color: #990000">[</span><span style="color: #FF0000">"are_good_for_u"</span><span style="color: #990000">]</span> cookies<span style="color: #990000">[:</span>are_good_for_u<span style="color: #990000">]</span>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+Another example: Calling the +:view+ action, passing an +id+ of 12 as the +params+, this time with no session, but with a flash message.
-<span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># Because you can't use assigns[:something] for historical reasons:</span></span>
- assigns<span style="color: #990000">[</span><span style="color: #FF0000">"something"</span><span style="color: #990000">]</span> assigns<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>something<span style="color: #990000">)</span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<h3 id="_instance_variables_available">4.4. Instance Variables Available</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>You also have access to three instance variables in your functional tests:</p></div>
-<div class="ilist"><ul>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>@controller</tt> - The controller processing the request
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>@request</tt> - The request
-</p>
-</li>
-<li>
-<p>
-<tt>@response</tt> - The response
-</p>
-</li>
-</ul></div>
-<h3 id="_a_fuller_functional_test_example">4.5. A Fuller Functional Test Example</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>Here's another example that uses <tt>flash</tt>, <tt>assert_redirected_to</tt>, and <tt>assert_difference</tt>:</p></div>
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>get(:view, {<em>id</em> &#8658; <em>12</em>}, nil, {<em>message</em> &#8658; <em>booya!</em>})</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> test_should_create_post
- assert_difference<span style="color: #990000">(</span><span style="color: #FF0000">'Post.count'</span><span style="color: #990000">)</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">do</span></span>
- post <span style="color: #990000">:</span>create<span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>post <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">{</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>title <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'Hi'</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #990000">:</span>body <span style="color: #990000">=&gt;</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'This is my first post.'</span><span style="color: #FF0000">}</span>
- <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
- assert_redirected_to post_path<span style="color: #990000">(</span>assigns<span style="color: #990000">(:</span>post<span style="color: #990000">))</span>
- assert_equal <span style="color: #FF0000">'Post was successfully created.'</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> flash<span style="color: #990000">[:</span>notice<span style="color: #990000">]</span>
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<h3 id="_testing_views">4.6. Testing Views</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>Testing the response to your request by asserting the presence of key HTML elements and their content is a useful way to test the views of your application. The <tt>assert_select</tt> assertion allows you to do this by using a simple yet powerful syntax.</p></div>
-<div class="admonitionblock">
-<table><tr>
-<td class="icon">
-<img src="./images/icons/note.png" alt="Note" />
-</td>
-<td class="content">You may find references to <tt>assert_tag</tt> in other documentation, but this is now deprecated in favor of <tt>assert_select</tt>.</td>
-</tr></table>
-</div>
-<div class="para"><p>There are two forms of <tt>assert_select</tt>:</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p><tt>assert_select(selector, [equality], [message])`</tt> ensures that the equality condition is met on the selected elements through the selector. The selector may be a CSS selector expression (String), an expression with substitution values, or an <tt>HTML::Selector</tt> object.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p><tt>assert_select(element, selector, [equality], [message])</tt> ensures that the equality condition is met on all the selected elements through the selector starting from the <em>element</em> (instance of <tt>HTML::Node</tt>) and its descendants.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>For example, you could verify the contents on the title element in your response with:</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+NOTE: If you try running +test_should_create_post+ test from +posts_controller_test.rb+ it will fail on account of the newly added model level validation and rightly so.
+
+Let us modify +test_should_create_post+ test in +posts_controller_test.rb+ so that all our test pass:
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>def test_should_create_post
+ assert_difference(<em>Post.count</em>) do
+ post :create, :post &#8658; { :title &#8658; <em>Some title</em>}
+ end</p></div>
+<div class="literalblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt> assert_redirected_to post_path(assigns(:post))
+end</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt>assert_select <span style="color: #FF0000">'title'</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">"Welcome to Rails Testing Guide"</span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>You can also use nested <tt>assert_select</tt> blocks. In this case the inner <tt>assert_select</tt> will run the assertion on each element selected by the outer <tt>assert_select</tt> block:</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+Now you can try running all the tests and they should pass.
+
+=== Available Request Types for Functional Tests ===
+
+If you're familiar with the HTTP protocol, you'll know that +get+ is a type of request. There are 5 request types supported in Rails functional tests:
+
+* +get+
+* +post+
+* +put+
+* +head+
+* +delete+
+
+All of request types are methods that you can use, however, you'll probably end up using the first two more often than the others.
+
+=== The 4 Hashes of the Apocalypse ===
+
+After a request has been made by using one of the 5 methods (+get+, +post+, etc.) and processed, you will have 4 Hash objects ready for use:
+
+* +assigns+ - Any objects that are stored as instance variables in actions for use in views.
+* +cookies+ - Any cookies that are set.
+* +flash+ - Any objects living in the flash.
+* +session+ - Any object living in session variables.
+
+As is the case with normal Hash objects, you can access the values by referencing the keys by string. You can also reference them by symbol name, except for +assigns+. For example:
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="literalblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>flash["gordon"] flash[:gordon]
+session["shmession"] session[:shmession]
+cookies["are_good_for_u"] cookies[:are_good_for_u]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p># Because you can't use assigns[:something] for historical reasons:
+ assigns["something"] assigns(:something)</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt>assert_select <span style="color: #FF0000">'ul.navigation'</span> <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">do</span></span>
- assert_select <span style="color: #FF0000">'li.menu_item'</span>
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>The <tt>assert_select</tt> assertion is quite powerful. For more advanced usage, refer to its <a href="http://api.rubyonrails.com/classes/ActionController/Assertions/SelectorAssertions.html#M000749">documentation</a>.</p></div>
-<h4 id="_additional_view_based_assertions">4.6.1. Additional View-based Assertions</h4>
-<div class="para"><p>There are more assertions that are primarily used in testing views:</p></div>
-<div class="tableblock">
-<table rules="all"
-frame="hsides"
-cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4">
-<col width="948" />
-<col width="640" />
-<thead>
- <tr>
- <th align="left">
- Assertion
- </th>
- <th align="left">
- Purpose
- </th>
- </tr>
-</thead>
-<tbody valign="top">
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_select_email</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to make assertions on the body of an e-mail.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_select_rjs</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to make assertions on RJS response. <tt>assert_select_rjs</tt> has variants which allow you to narrow down on the updated element or even a particular operation on an element.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>assert_select_encoded</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to make assertions on encoded HTML. It does this by un-encoding the contents of each element and then calling the block with all the un-encoded elements.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>css_select(selector)</tt> or <tt>css_select(element, selector)</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Returns an array of all the elements selected by the <em>selector</em>. In the second variant it first matches the base <em>element</em> and tries to match the <em>selector</em> expression on any of its children. If there are no matches both variants return an empty array.
- </td>
- </tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-<div class="para"><p>Here's an example of using <tt>assert_select_email</tt>:</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+=== Instance Variables Available ===
+
+You also have access to three instance variables in your functional tests:
+
+* +@controller+ - The controller processing the request
+* +@request+ - The request
+* +@response+ - The response
+
+=== A Fuller Functional Test Example
+
+Here's another example that uses +flash+, +assert_redirected_to+, and +assert_difference+:
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>def test_should_create_post
+ assert_difference(<em>Post.count</em>) do
+ post :create, :post &#8658; { :title &#8658; <em>Hi</em>, :body &#8658; <em>This is my first post.</em>}
+ end
+ assert_redirected_to post_path(assigns(:post))
+ assert_equal <em>Post was successfully created.</em>, flash[:notice]
+end</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt>assert_select_email <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">do</span></span>
- assert_select <span style="color: #FF0000">'small'</span><span style="color: #990000">,</span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'Please click the "Unsubscribe" link if you want to opt-out.'</span>
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-</div>
-<h2 id="_integration_testing">5. Integration Testing</h2>
-<div class="sectionbody">
-<div class="para"><p>Integration tests are used to test the interaction among any number of controllers. They are generally used to test important work flows within your application.</p></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Unlike Unit and Functional tests, integration tests have to be explicitly created under the <em>test/integration</em> folder within your application. Rails provides a generator to create an integration test skeleton for you.</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+=== Testing Views ===
+
+Testing the response to your request by asserting the presence of key HTML elements and their content is a useful way to test the views of your application. The +assert_select+ assertion allows you to do this by using a simple yet powerful syntax.
+
+NOTE: You may find references to +assert_tag+ in other documentation, but this is now deprecated in favor of +assert_select+.
+
+There are two forms of +assert_select+:
+
++assert_select(selector, [equality], [message])`+ ensures that the equality condition is met on the selected elements through the selector. The selector may be a CSS selector expression (String), an expression with substitution values, or an +HTML::Selector+ object.
+
++assert_select(element, selector, [equality], [message])+ ensures that the equality condition is met on all the selected elements through the selector starting from the _element_ (instance of +HTML::Node+) and its descendants.
+
+For example, you could verify the contents on the title element in your response with:
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>assert_select <em>title</em>, "Welcome to Rails Testing Guide"</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt>$ script/generate integration_test user_flows
- exists test/integration<span style="color: #990000">/</span>
- create test/integration/user_flows_test<span style="color: #990000">.</span>rb
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Here's what a freshly-generated integration test looks like:</p></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+You can also use nested +assert_select+ blocks. In this case the inner +assert_select+ will run the assertion on each element selected by the outer `assert_select` block:
+
+[source,ruby]</tt></pre>
+</div></div>
+<div class="para"><p>assert_select <em>ul.navigation</em> do
+ assert_select <em>li.menu_item</em>
+end</p></div>
<div class="listingblock">
-<div class="content"><!-- Generator: GNU source-highlight 2.9
-by Lorenzo Bettini
-http://www.lorenzobettini.it
-http://www.gnu.org/software/src-highlite -->
-<pre><tt><span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #000080">require</span></span> <span style="color: #FF0000">'test_helper'</span>
+<div class="content">
+<pre><tt>
+The +assert_select+ assertion is quite powerful. For more advanced usage, refer to its link:http://api.rubyonrails.com/classes/ActionController/Assertions/SelectorAssertions.html#M000749[documentation].
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">class</span></span> UserFlowsTest <span style="color: #990000">&lt;</span> ActionController<span style="color: #990000">::</span>IntegrationTest
- <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># fixtures :your, :models</span></span>
+==== Additional View-based Assertions ====
- <span style="font-style: italic"><span style="color: #9A1900"># Replace this with your real tests.</span></span>
- <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">def</span></span> test_truth
- assert <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">true</span></span>
- <span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-<span style="font-weight: bold"><span style="color: #0000FF">end</span></span>
-</tt></pre></div></div>
-<div class="para"><p>Integration tests inherit from <tt>ActionController::IntegrationTest</tt>. This makes available some additional helpers to use in your integration tests. Also you need to explicitly include the fixtures to be made available to the test.</p></div>
-<h3 id="_helpers_available_for_integration_tests">5.1. Helpers Available for Integration tests</h3>
-<div class="para"><p>In addition to the standard testing helpers, there are some additional helpers available to integration tests:</p></div>
-<div class="tableblock">
-<table rules="all"
-frame="hsides"
-cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4">
-<col width="948" />
-<col width="640" />
-<thead>
- <tr>
- <th align="left">
- Helper
- </th>
- <th align="left">
- Purpose
- </th>
- </tr>
-</thead>
-<tbody valign="top">
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>https?</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Returns <tt>true</tt> if the session is mimicking a secure HTTPS request.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>https!</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to mimic a secure HTTPS request.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>host!</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to set the host name to use in the next request.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>redirect?</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Returns <tt>true</tt> if the last request was a redirect.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>follow_redirect!</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Follows a single redirect response.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>request_via_redirect(http_method, path, [parameters], [headers])</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to make an HTTP request and follow any subsequent redirects.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>post_via_redirect(path, [parameters], [headers])</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to make an HTTP POST request and follow any subsequent redirects.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>get_via_redirect(path, [parameters], [headers])</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to make an HTTP GET request and follow any subsequent redirects.
- </td>
- </tr>
- <tr>
- <td align="left">
- <tt>put_via_redirect(path, [parameters], [headers])</tt>
- </td>
- <td align="left">
- Allows you to make an HTTP PUT request and follow any subsequent redirects.