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The Ruby Programming Language
Ruby C E HTML Yacc Makefile Other

* 2015-10-10

git-svn-id: svn+ssh:// b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e
latest commit 1331f80a1e
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benchmark * benchmark/prepare_require.rb: skip file creation if it already
bin * bin/erb: $SAFE=3 is obsolete.
bootstraptest * bootstraptest/test_method.rb: remove a test because $SAFE=2 was
ccan ccan/list/list.h: suppress unused argument warnings
coverage fix a typo [ci skip]
cygwin win32.c: fake lchown
defs separate test-testframework
doc [DOC] Remove `\0` since it's aprt of octal notation
enc refix through 52016,52017,52019,52020 [Bug #11486]
ext udpsocket.c: memory leaks
gems * gems/bundled_gems: upgrade to minitest-5.8.1
include ruby.h: RB_OBJ_FROZEN_RAW
lib * lib/net/ftp.rb (parse257): refactor.
man man: updated
misc Import ruby-electric.el version 2.2.3 from upstream
missing missing/setproctitle.c: Avoid invalidating argv[1], argv[2], etc. unt…
nacl Fix PNaCl configure/link errors.
sample * sample/exyacc.rb: Fix some typos.
spec * spec/default.mspec: use default configuration file name.
template ignore empty env
test udpsocket.c: memory leaks
tool Put an line before "frozen_string_literal: true" for emacs.
win32 win32.c: fallback to WCHAR-version in MSVCRT
.document * .document: removed needless entries.
.editorconfig .editorconfig: new
.gdbinit refix r51329 and show thread information
.gitignore fix conflict of version.i * added for ruby-style.
.travis.yml * .travis.yml: retry.
BSDL * BSDL: update copyright notice for 2013. [DOC] Please see _the_ official issue tracker... [ci skip]
COPYING * COPYING: change Ruby's License from a dual license with GPLv2
COPYING.ja Change encoding from EUC-JP to UTF-8. [Feature #5128]
ChangeLog udpsocket.c: memory leaks
GPL * GPL: update text of GPLv2. [ruby-core:44488] [Bug #6328]
KNOWNBUGS.rb * test/ruby/test_method.rb (test_unlinked_method_entry_in_method_obje…
LEGAL LEGAL: adjust style add ruby-runner only if needed
NEWS * ext/openssl/lib/openssl/ssl.rb: Revert r52082 because it was
README.EXT README.EXT: add redirect [ruby-core:68631]
README.EXT.ja README.EXT.ja: add redirect [ruby-core:68631] fix markup miss. [ci skip] * improve markdown rendering for readable.
addr2line.c * addr2line.c (fill_lines): get base addrs in fill_lines to use it
addr2line.h * addr2line.c (fill_lines): loop reverse order not to overwrite
array.c preserve encodings in error messages
bignum.c preserve encodings in error messages
class.c class.c: refine error messages separate test-testframework
compar.c compar.c: variable name [ci skip]
compile.c * compile.c (iseq_compile_each): Dynamic string literals (e.g.,
complex.c preserve encodings in error messages remove garbage spaces
constant.h variable.c: Module#deprecate_constant
cont.c cont.c: append to continuations doc [ci skip]
debug.c ruby.h: add prefix
dir.c dir.c: make ASCII-8BIT
dln.c dln.c: fix EXTERNAL_PREFIX
dln.h dln.c: extra arguments
dln_find.c dln_find.c: define S_ISREG
dmydln.c * encoding.c (rb_enc_codepoint_len): Use UNREACHABLE to avoid "control
dmyenc.c load.c: tweak the return value
dmyext.c dmyenc.c: separate
encindex.h * encindex.h: fix typo of last #endif comment.
encoding.c encindex.h: ENCINDEX
enum.c add a comment.
enumerator.c preserve encodings in error messages
error.c preserve encodings in error messages
eval.c improve handling of timer thread shutdown
eval_error.c eval.c: check tag value
eval_intern.h eval_intern.h: pass_passed_block
eval_jump.c eval.c: use the given thread
file.c file.c: get rid of intermediate objects
gc.c * gc.c (newobj_of): divide fast path and slow path
gc.h * gc.h, gc.c: introduce new debug function rb_obj_info_dump(VALUE obj)
gem_prelude.rb * ruby.c (usage, enable_option, disable_option, process_options): new
golf_prelude.rb * golf_prelude.rb: syntax formatting for whitespace [Fixes GH-425]
goruby.c goruby.c: suppress warning
hash.c hash.c: GC guards
ia64.s * removed trailing spaces.
id_table.c id_table.c: fix prototype names
id_table.h id_table.h: include guard
inits.c * internal.h: Include ruby.h and ruby/encoding.h to be
insns.def revert r51991
internal.h vm_args.c: wrap symbol ifunc
io.c encindex.h: ENCINDEX
iseq.c * iseq.c (rb_iseq_free): free iseq::variable_body to avoid memory
iseq.h fronzen-string-literal pragma
lex.c.blt PIC lex.c
load.c load.c (features_index_add): avoid repeat calculation
loadpath.c * loadpath.c (RUBY_REVISION): Defined to suppress revision.h
localeinit.c localeinit.c: encindex.h
main.c * include/ruby/debug.h: introdudced.
marshal.c marshal.c: reduce arity checks
math.c object.c: rb_num_to_dbl
method.h * method.h: IMEMO_FL_USER3 and IMEMO_FL_USER4 is not needed any more.
miniinit.c encoding.c: find encoding index
node.c node.c: fix comments [ci skip]
node.h fronzen-string-literal pragma
numeric.c * remove trailing spaces.
object.c object.c: rb_num_to_dbl
pack.c * pack.c (pack_{un,}pack): new template character `j` and `J`, pointer
parse.y parse.y: reorder conditions
prelude.rb * prelude.rb: [DOC] Update Thread::exclusive docs by @stevenharman.
probes.d change lingering dtrace probe documentation from function- to method-
probes_helper.h probes_helper.h (RUBY_DTRACE_HOOK): correct type for _id
proc.c * proc.c (rb_method_entry_min_max_arity): should support
process.c process.c: do not inherit saved fds
random.c random.c: get rid of blocking
range.c range.c: call range_include directly if possible
rational.c rational.c: preserve encoding in exception
re.c re.c: indent [ci skip]
regcomp.c * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regenc.c oniguruma.h: constify
regenc.h oniguruma.h: constify
regerror.c * regcomp.c: Merge Onigmo 5.14.1 25a8a69fc05ae3b56a09.
regexec.c uninitialized variable
regint.h * Avoid undefined behaviors found by gcc -fsanitize=undefined.
regparse.c regparse.c: remove unused variable
regparse.h * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regsyntax.c * Merge Onigmo-5.13.1. [ruby-dev:45057] [Feature #5820]
ruby.c ruby.c: frozen-string-literal option
ruby_atomic.h ruby_atomic.h: fix typo
safe.c * safe.c: removed needless doc related $SAFE=2
signal.c revert r31760 and r31761
siphash.c UNALIGNED_WORD_ACCESS on ppc64
siphash.h * siphash.h: check configure macros before include newer headers.
sparc.c * sparc.c: Use __asm__ instead of asm for gcc.
sprintf.c vsnprintf.c: constify
st.c st.c: constify st_table* in private functions
strftime.c * strftime.c (rb_strftime_with_timespec): Test yday range.
string.c string.c: str_duplicate
struct.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
symbol.c symbol.c: suppress warnings
symbol.h * ext/objspace/objspace.c: add a new method ObjectSpace.count_symbols.
thread.c thread.c: suppress warnings only if GCC6+
thread_pthread.c thread_pthread.c: async_bug_fd
thread_pthread.h thread_pthread: prefer rb_nativethread* types/functions
thread_sync.c thread_sync.c: fix typos
thread_win32.c improve handling of timer thread shutdown
thread_win32.h * ext/openssl/depend: remove dependency from internal headers.
time.c preserve encodings in error messages
timev.h, win32/Makefile.sub: PACKED_STRUCT with VC
transcode.c transcode.c: GC guards
transcode_data.h transcode_data.h: missing cast
util.c util.c: BSD qsort_r
variable.c variable.c: fail if frozen
version.c scan version.c
version.h * 2015-10-10
vm.c compile.c: fix performance of strconcat
vm_args.c * vm_args.c: remove an unused field args_info::calling.
vm_backtrace.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
vm_core.h vm_core.h: vm_thread_with_frame
vm_debug.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
vm_dump.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
vm_eval.c * method.h: remove METHOD_ENTRY_SAFE(me) and related code
vm_exec.c * vm_core.h: constify rb_iseq_constant_body::iseq_encoded and
vm_exec.h * vm_exec.h (VM_DEBUG_STACKOVERFLOW): added.
vm_insnhelper.c * vm_insnhelper.c (vm_call_method0): use switch() for visibilities
vm_insnhelper.h * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
vm_method.c * method.h: remove METHOD_ENTRY_SAFE(me) and related code
vm_opts.h * vm_opts.h, iseq.c, iseq.h: add compile option to force frozen
vm_trace.c * include/ruby/ruby.h, cont.c, vm_trace.c: add a new event
vsnprintf.c vsnprintf.c: constify

What's Ruby

Ruby is the interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming. It has many features to process text files and to do system management tasks (as in Perl). It is simple, straight-forward, and extensible.

Features of Ruby

  • Simple Syntax
  • Normal Object-oriented Features (e.g. class, method calls)
  • Advanced Object-oriented Features (e.g. Mix-in, Singleton-method)
  • Operator Overloading
  • Exception Handling
  • Iterators and Closures
  • Garbage Collection
  • Dynamic Loading of Object Files (on some architectures)
  • Highly Portable (works on many Unix-like/POSIX compatible platforms as well as Windows, Mac OS X, BeOS, etc.) cf.

How to get Ruby

For a complete list of ways to install Ruby, including using third-party tools like rvm, see:

The Ruby distribution files can be found on the following FTP site:

The trunk of the Ruby source tree can be checked out with the following command:

$ svn co ruby

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

$ git clone git://

There are some other branches under development. Try the following command to see the list of branches:

$ svn ls

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

$ git ls-remote git://

Ruby home page

The URL of the Ruby home page is:

Mailing list

There is a mailing list to talk about Ruby. To subscribe this list, please send the following phrase:


in the mail body (not subject) to the address

How to compile and install

This is what you need to do to compile and install Ruby:

  1. If you want to use Microsoft Visual C++ to compile ruby, read win32/README.win32 instead of this document.

  2. If ./configure does not exist or is older than, run autoconf to (re)generate configure.

  3. Run ./configure, which will generate config.h and Makefile.

    Some C compiler flags may be added by default depending on your environment. Specify optflags=.. and warnflags=.. as necessary to override them.

  4. Edit defines.h if you need. Usually this step will not be needed.

  5. Remove comment mark(#) before the module names from ext/Setup (or add module names if not present), if you want to link modules statically.

    If you don't want to compile non static extension modules (probably on architectures which do not allow dynamic loading), remove comment mark from the line "#option nodynamic" in ext/Setup.

    Usually this step will not be needed.

  6. Run make.

  7. Optionally, run 'make check' to check whether the compiled Ruby interpreter works well. If you see the message "check succeeded", your ruby works as it should (hopefully).

  8. Run 'make install'

    This command will create following directories and install files onto them.

    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/bin
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/gems/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/man/man1
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/ri/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/system

    If Ruby's API version is 'x.y.z', the ${MAJOR} is 'x', the ${MINOR} is 'y', and the ${TEENY} is 'z'.

    NOTE: teeny of the API version may be different from one of Ruby's program version

    You may have to be a super user to install ruby.

If you fail to compile ruby, please send the detailed error report with the error log and machine/OS type, to help others.

Some extension libraries may not get compiled because of lack of necessary external libraries and/or headers, then you will need to run 'make distclean-ext' to remove old configuration after installing them in such case.


See the file COPYING.


Questions about the Ruby language can be asked on the Ruby-Talk mailing list ( or on websites like (

Bug reports should be filed at Read HowToReport for more information.


See the file

The Author

Ruby was originally designed and developed by Yukihiro Matsumoto (Matz) in 1995.

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