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README.md

TypeDI

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TypeDI is a dependency injection tool for JavaScript and TypeScript. Using TypeDI you can build well-structured and easily tested applications.

Usage with JavaScript

Install the module:

npm install typedi --save

Now you can use TypeDI. The most simple usage example is:

class SomeClass {

    someMethod() {
    }

}

var Container = require("typedi").Container;
var someClass = Container.get(SomeClass);
someClass.someMethod();

Then you can call Container.get(SomeClass) from anywhere in your application and you'll always have the same instance of SomeClass.

In your class's constructor you always receive as a last argument a container which you can use to get other dependencies.

class BeanFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

class SugarFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

class WaterFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

class CoffeeMaker {

    constructor(container) {
        this.beanFactory = container.get(BeanFactory);
        this.sugarFactory = container.get(SugarFactory);
        this.waterFactory = container.get(WaterFactory);
    }

    make() {
        this.beanFactory.create();
        this.sugarFactory.create();
        this.waterFactory.create();
    }

}

var Container = require("typedi").Container;
var coffeeMaker = Container.get(CoffeeMaker);
coffeeMaker.make();

With TypeDI you can use a named services. Example:

var Container = require("typedi").Container;

class BeanFactory implements Factory {
    create() {
    }
}

class SugarFactory implements Factory {
    create() {
    }
}

class WaterFactory implements Factory {
    create() {
    }
}

class CoffeeMaker {

    beanFactory: Factory;
    sugarFactory: Factory;
    waterFactory: Factory;

    constructor(container) {
        this.beanFactory = container.get("bean.factory");
        this.sugarFactory = container.get("sugar.factory");
        this.waterFactory = container.get("water.factory");
    }

    make() {
        this.beanFactory.create();
        this.sugarFactory.create();
        this.waterFactory.create();
    }

}

Container.set("bean.factory", new BeanFactory(Container));
Container.set("sugar.factory", new SugarFactory(Container));
Container.set("water.factory", new WaterFactory(Container));
Container.set("coffee.maker", new CoffeeMaker(Container));

var coffeeMaker = Container.get("coffee.maker");
coffeeMaker.make();

This feature especially useful if you want to store (and inject later on) some settings or configuration options. For example:

var Container = require("typedi").Container;

// somewhere in your global app parameters
Container.set("authorization-token", "RVT9rVjSVN");

class UserRepository {

    constructor(container) {
        this.authorizationToken = container.get("authorization-token");
    }

}

When you write tests you can easily provide your own "fake" dependencies to classes you are testing using set method:

Container.set(CoffeeMaker, new FakeCoffeeMaker());

// or for named services

Container.set([
    { id: "bean.factory", value: new FakeBeanFactory() },
    { id: "sugar.factory", value: new FakeSugarFactory() },
    { id: "water.factory", value: new FakeWaterFactory() }
]);

TypeDI also supports a function dependency injection. Here is how it looks like:

var Service = require("typedi").Service;
var Container = require("typedi").Container;

var PostRepository = Service(() => ({
    getName() {
        return "hello from post repository";
    }
}));

var PostManager = Service(() => ({
    getId() {
        return "some post id";
    }
}));

class PostQueryBuilder {
    build() {
        return "SUPER * QUERY";
    }
}

var PostController = Service([
    PostManager,
    PostRepository,
    PostQueryBuilder
], (manager, repository, queryBuilder) => {
    return {
        id: manager.getId(),
        name: repository.getName(),
        query: queryBuilder.build()
    };
});

var postController = Container.get(PostController);
console.log(postController);

Usage with TypeScript

  1. Install module:

    npm install typedi --save

  2. Install reflect-metadata package:

    npm install reflect-metadata --save

    and import it somewhere in the global place of your app before any service declaration or import (for example in app.ts):

    import "reflect-metadata";

  3. You may need to install node typings:

    npm install @types/node --save

  4. Enabled following settings in tsconfig.json:

"emitDecoratorMetadata": true,
"experimentalDecorators": true,

Now you can use TypeDI. The most simple usage example is:

import "reflect-metadata";
import {Service, Container} from "typedi";

@Service()
class SomeClass {

    someMethod() {
    }

}

let someClass = Container.get(SomeClass);
someClass.someMethod();

Then you can call Container.get(SomeClass) from anywhere in your application and you'll always have the same instance of SomeClass.

You can use property injection and inject services into your class using @Inject decorator:

import {Container, Inject, Service} from "typedi";

@Service()
class BeanFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service()
class SugarFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service()
class WaterFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service()
class CoffeeMaker {

    @Inject()
    beanFactory: BeanFactory;
    
    @Inject()
    sugarFactory: SugarFactory;
    
    @Inject()
    waterFactory: WaterFactory;

    make() {
        this.beanFactory.create();
        this.sugarFactory.create();
        this.waterFactory.create();
    }

}

let coffeeMaker = Container.get(CoffeeMaker);
coffeeMaker.make();

You can also use a constructor injection:

import {Container, Service} from "typedi";

@Service()
class BeanFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service()
class SugarFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service()
class WaterFactory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service()
class CoffeeMaker {

    constructor(private beanFactory: BeanFactory,
                private sugarFactory: SugarFactory,
                private waterFactory: WaterFactory) {}

    make() {
        this.beanFactory.create();
        this.sugarFactory.create();
        this.waterFactory.create();
    }

}

let coffeeMaker = Container.get(CoffeeMaker);
coffeeMaker.make();

With TypeDI you can use a named services. Example:

import {Container, Service, Inject} from "typedi";

interface Factory {
    create(): void;
}

@Service("bean.factory")
class BeanFactory implements Factory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service("sugar.factory")
class SugarFactory implements Factory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service("water.factory")
class WaterFactory implements Factory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service("coffee.maker")
class CoffeeMaker {

    beanFactory: Factory;
    sugarFactory: Factory;

    @Inject("water.factory")
    waterFactory: Factory;

    constructor(@Inject("bean.factory") beanFactory: BeanFactory,
                @Inject("sugar.factory") sugarFactory: SugarFactory) {
        this.beanFactory = beanFactory;
        this.sugarFactory = sugarFactory;
    }

    make() {
        this.beanFactory.create();
        this.sugarFactory.create();
        this.waterFactory.create();
    }

}

let coffeeMaker = Container.get<CoffeeMaker>("coffee.maker");
coffeeMaker.make();

This feature especially useful if you want to store (and inject later on) some settings or configuration options. For example:

import {Container, Service, Inject} from "typedi";

// somewhere in your global app parameters
Container.set("authorization-token", "RVT9rVjSVN");

@Service()
class UserRepository {

    @Inject("authorization-token")
    authorizationToken: string;

}

When you write tests you can easily provide your own "fake" dependencies to classes you are testing using set method: provide methods of the container:

Container.set(CoffeeMaker, new FakeCoffeeMaker());

// or for named services

Container.set([
    { id: "bean.factory", value: new FakeBeanFactory() },
    { id: "sugar.factory", value: new FakeSugarFactory() },
    { id: "water.factory", value: new FakeWaterFactory() }
]);

TypeScript Advanced Usage Examples

Services with token name

You can use a services with a Token instead of name or target class. In this case you can use type safe interface-based services.

import {Container, Service, Inject, Token} from "typedi";

export interface Factory {
    create(): void;
}

export const FactoryService = new Token<Factory>(); 

@Service(FactoryService)
export class BeanFactory implements Factory {
    create() {
    }
}

@Service()
export class CoffeeMaker {
    
    private factory: Factory;

    constructor(@Inject(type => FactoryService) factory: Factory) {
        this.factory = factory;
    }

    make() {
        this.factory.create();
    }

}

let coffeeMaker = Container.get(CoffeeMaker);
coffeeMaker.make();

let factory = Container.get(FactoryService); // factory is instance of Factory
factory.create();

Using factory function to create service

You can create your services with the container using factory functions.

This way, service instance will be created by calling your factory function instead of instantiating a class directly.

import {Container, Service} from "typedi";

function createCar() {
    return new Car("V8");
}

@Service({ factory: createCar })
class Car {
    constructor (public engineType: string) {
    }
}

// Getting service from the container.
// Service will be created by calling the specified factory function.
const car = Container.get(Car);

console.log(car.engineType); // > "V8"

Using factory class to create service

You can also create your services using factory classes.

This way, service instance will be created by calling given factory service's method factory instead of instantiating a class directly.

import {Container, Service} from "typedi";

@Service()
class CarFactory {
    
    constructor(public logger: LoggerService) {
    }
    
    create() {
        return new Car("BMW", this.logger);
    }
    
}

@Service({ factory: [CarFactory, "create"] })
class Car {
    constructor(public model: string, public logger: LoggerInterface) {
    }
}

Problem with circular references

There is a known issue in language that it can't handle circular references. For example:

// Car.ts
@Service()
export class Car {
    @Inject()
    engine: Engine;
}

// Engine.ts
@Service()
export class Engine {
    @Inject()
    car: Car;
}

This code will not work, because Engine has a reference to Car, and Car has a reference to Engine. One of them will be undefined and it cause errors. To fix them you need to specify a type in a function this way:

// Car.ts
@Service()
export class Car {
    @Inject(type => Engine)
    engine: Engine;
}

// Engine.ts
@Service()
export class Engine {
    @Inject(type => Car)
    car: Car;
}

And that's all. Same for constructor injections.

Inherited injections

Inherited injections are supported as well. In order to use them you must mark inherited class as a @Service. For example:

// Car.ts
@Service()
export abstract class Car {

    @Inject()
    engine: Engine;

}

// Engine.ts
@Service()
export class Bus extends Car {

    // you can call this.engine in this class
}

Custom decorators

You can create your own decorators which will inject your given values for your service dependencies. For example:

// Logger.ts
export function Logger() {
    return function(object: Object, propertyName: string, index?: number) {
        const logger = new ConsoleLogger();
        Container.registerHandler({ object, propertyName, index, value: containerInstance => logger });
    };
}

// LoggerInterface.ts
export interface LoggerInterface {

    log(message: string): void;

}

// ConsoleLogger.ts
import {LoggerInterface} from "./LoggerInterface";

export class ConsoleLogger implements LoggerInterface {

    log(message: string) {
        console.log(message);
    }

}

// UserRepository.ts
@Service()
export class UserRepository {

    constructor(@Logger() private logger: LoggerInterface) {
    }

    save(user: User) {
        this.logger.log(`user ${user.firstName} ${user.secondName} has been saved.`);
    }

}

Using service groups

You can group multiple services into single group tagged with service id or token. For example:

// Factory.ts
export interface Factory {
    create(): any;
}

// FactoryToken.ts
export const FactoryToken = new Token<Factory>("factories");

// BeanFactory.ts
@Service({ id: FactoryToken, multiple: true })
export class BeanFactory implements Factory {

    create() {
        console.log("bean created");
    }

}

// SugarFactory.ts
@Service({ id: FactoryToken, multiple: true })
export class SugarFactory implements Factory {

    create() {
        console.log("sugar created");
    }

}

// WaterFactory.ts
@Service({ id: FactoryToken, multiple: true })
export class WaterFactory implements Factory {

    create() {
        console.log("water created");
    }

}

// app.ts
// now you can get all factories in a single array
Container.import([
    BeanFactory,
    SugarFactory,
    WaterFactory,
]);
const factories = Container.getMany(FactoryToken); // factories is Factory[]
factories.forEach(factory => factory.create());

Using multiple containers and scoped containers

By default all services are stored in the global service container, and this global service container holds all unique instances of each service you have.

If you want your services to behave and store data inside differently, based on some user context (http request for example) - you can use different containers for different contexts. For example:

// QuestionController.ts
@Service()
export class QuestionController {

    constructor(protected questionRepository: QuestionRepository) {
    }

    save() {
        this.questionRepository.save();
    }
}

// QuestionRepository.ts
@Service()
export class QuestionRepository {

    save() {
    }

}

// app.ts
const request1 = { param: "question1" };
const controller1 = Container.of(request1).get(QuestionController);
controller1.save("Timber");
Container.reset(request1);

const request2 = { param: "question2" };
const controller2 = Container.of(request2).get(QuestionController);
controller2.save("");
Container.reset(request2);

In this example controller1 and controller2 are completely different instances, and QuestionRepository used in those controllers are different instances as well.

Container.reset removes container with the given context identifier. If you want your services to be completely global and not be container-specific, you can mark them as global:

@Service({ global: true })
export class QuestionUtils {
  
}

And this global service will be the same instance across all containers.

TypeDI also supports a function dependency injection. Here is how it looks like:

export const PostRepository = Service(() => ({
    getName() {
        return "hello from post repository";
    }
}));

export const PostManager = Service(() => ({
    getId() {
        return "some post id";
    }
}));

export class PostQueryBuilder {
    build() {
        return "SUPER * QUERY";
    }
}

export const PostController = Service([
    PostManager,
    PostRepository,
    PostQueryBuilder
], (manager, repository, queryBuilder) => {
    return {
        id: manager.getId(),
        name: repository.getName(),
        query: queryBuilder.build()
    };
});

const postController = Container.get(PostController);
console.log(postController);

Remove registered services or reset container state

If you need to remove registered service from container simply use Container.remove(...) method. Also you can completely reset the container by calling Container.reset() method. This will effectively remove all registered services from the container.

Troubleshooting

Use TypeDI with routing-controllers and/or TypeORM

In order to use typedi with routing-controllers and/or typeorm, it's necessary to tell these libs to use the typedi container. Otherwise you may face this kind of issue.

import {useContainer as routingUseContainer} from "routing-controllers";
import {useContainer as ormUseContainer} from "typeorm";
import {Container} from "typedi";

routingUseContainer(Container);
ormUseContainer(Container);

Samples

Take a look on samples in ./sample for examples of usage.