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Mitiq is a Python toolkit for implementing error mitigation techniques on quantum computers.

Current quantum computers are noisy due to interactions with the environment, imperfect gate applications, state preparation and measurement errors, etc. Error mitigation seeks to reduce these effects at the software level by compiling quantum programs in clever ways.

Want to know more? Check out our documentation, chat with us on Discord, and join our weekly community call (public agenda).



pip install mitiq


Define a function which inputs a circuit and returns an expectation value you want to compute, then use Mitiq to mitigate errors.

import cirq
from mitiq import zne, benchmarks

def execute(circuit, noise_level=0.005):
    """Returns Tr[ρ |0⟩⟨0|] where ρ is the state prepared by the circuit
    with depolarizing noise."""
    noisy_circuit = circuit.with_noise(cirq.depolarize(p=noise_level))
    return (
        .final_density_matrix[0, 0]

circuit = benchmarks.generate_rb_circuits(n_qubits=1, num_cliffords=50)[0]

true_value = execute(circuit, noise_level=0.0)      # Ideal quantum computer
noisy_value = execute(circuit)                      # Noisy quantum computer
zne_value = zne.execute_with_zne(circuit, execute)  # Noisy quantum computer + Mitiq

print(f"Error w/o  Mitiq: {abs((true_value - noisy_value) / true_value):.3f}")
print(f"Error w Mitiq:    {abs((true_value - zne_value) / true_value):.3f}")

Sample output:

Error w/o  Mitiq: 0.264
Error w Mitiq:    0.073


Unsure which error mitigation technique or parameters to use? Try out the calibration module demonstrated below to help find the best parameters for your particular backend!

See our guides and examples for more explanation, techniques, and benchmarks.

Quick Tour

Error mitigation techniques

Technique Documentation Mitiq module Paper Reference(s)
Zero-noise extrapolation ZNE mitiq.zne 1611.09301
Probabilistic error cancellation PEC mitiq.pec 1612.02058
(Variable-noise) Clifford data regression CDR mitiq.cdr 2005.10189
Digital dynamical decoupling DDD mitiq.ddd 9803057
Readout-error mitigation REM mitiq.rem 1907.08518

See our roadmap for additional candidate techniques to implement. If there is a technique you are looking for, please file a feature request.


We refer to any programming language you can write quantum circuits in as a frontend, and any quantum computer / simulator you can simulate circuits in as a backend.

Supported frontends

Cirq Qiskit pyQuil Braket PennyLane Qibo
Cirq logo Qiskit logo Rigetti logo AWS logo PennyLane logo Qibo logo

Note: Cirq is a core requirement of Mitiq and is installed when you pip install mitiq.

Supported backends

You can use Mitiq with any backend you have access to that can interface with supported frontends.

Citing Mitiq

If you use Mitiq in your research, please reference the Mitiq whitepaper using the bibtex entry found in CITATION.bib.

A list of papers citing Mitiq can be found on Google Scholar / Semantic Scholar.


GNU GPL v.3.0.


We welcome contributions to Mitiq including bug fixes, feature requests, etc. To get started, check out our contribution guidelines and/or documentation guidelines.

Contributors ✨

Thank you to all of the wonderful people that have made this project possible. Non-code contributors are also much appreciated, and are listed here. Thank you to

Contributions of any kind are welcome!