Get things from one computer to another, safely.
This package provides a library and a command-line tool named
which makes it possible to get short pieces of text (and arbitrary-sized
files and directories) from one computer to another. The two endpoints are
identified by using identical "wormhole codes": in general, the sending
machine generates and displays the code, which must then be typed into the
The codes are short and human-pronounceable, using a phonetically-distinct wordlist. The receiving side offers tab-completion on the codewords, so usually only a few characters must be typed. Wormhole codes are single-use and do not need to be memorized.
% wormhole send README.md Sending 7924 byte file named 'README.md' On the other computer, please run: wormhole receive Wormhole code is: 7-crossover-clockwork Sending (<-10.0.1.43:58988).. 100%|=========================| 7.92K/7.92K [00:00<00:00, 6.02MB/s] File sent.. waiting for confirmation Confirmation received. Transfer complete.
% wormhole receive Enter receive wormhole code: 7-crossover-clockwork Receiving file (7924 bytes) into: README.md ok? (y/n): y Receiving (->tcp:10.0.1.43:58986).. 100%|===========================| 7.92K/7.92K [00:00<00:00, 120KB/s] Received file written to README.md
$ pip install magic-wormhole
On Debian/Ubuntu systems, you may first need
apt-get install python-pip
build-essential python-dev libffi-dev libssl-dev. On Fedora it's
install python-pip python-devel libffi-devel openssl-devel gcc-c++
libtool redhat-rpm-config. On OS-X, you may need to install
xcode-select --install to get GCC. On Windows, python2 may work
better than python3. On older systems,
pip install --upgrade pip may
be necessary to get a version that can compile all the dependencies.
If you get errors like
fatal error: sodium.h: No such file or directory on
Linux, either use
SODIUM_INSTALL=bundled pip install magic-wormhole, or try
libsodium-devel package. These work around
a bug in pynacl which gets confused when the libsodium runtime is installed
libsodium13) but not the development package.
Developers can clone the source tree and run
tox to run the unit tests on
all supported (and installed) versions of python: 2.7, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, and
- Moving a file to a friend's machine, when the humans can speak to each other (directly) but the computers cannot
- Delivering a properly-random password to a new user via the phone
- Supplying an SSH public key for future login use
Copying files onto a USB stick requires physical proximity, and is uncomfortable for transferring long-term secrets because flash memory is hard to erase. Copying files with ssh/scp is fine, but requires previous arrangements and an account on the target machine, and how do you bootstrap the account? Copying files through email first requires transcribing an email address in the opposite direction, and is even worse for secrets, because email is unencrypted. Copying files through encrypted email requires bootstrapping a GPG key as well as an email address. Copying files through Dropbox is not secure against the Dropbox server and results in a large URL that must be transcribed. Using a URL shortener adds an extra step, reveals the full URL to the shortening service, and leaves a short URL that can be guessed by outsiders.
Many common use cases start with a human-mediated communication channel, such as IRC, IM, email, a phone call, or a face-to-face conversation. Some of these are basically secret, or are "secret enough" to last until the code is delivered and used. If this does not feel strong enough, users can turn on additional verification that doesn't depend upon the secrecy of the channel.
The notion of a "magic wormhole" comes from the image of two distant wizards speaking the same enchanted phrase at the same time, and causing a mystical connection to pop into existence between them. The wizards then throw books into the wormhole and they fall out the other side. Transferring files securely should be that easy.
wormhole tool uses PAKE "Password-Authenticated Key Exchange", a family
of cryptographic algorithms that uses a short low-entropy password to
establish a strong high-entropy shared key. This key can then be used to
wormhole uses the SPAKE2 algorithm, due to Abdalla and
PAKE effectively trades off interaction against offline attacks. The only way for a network attacker to learn the shared key is to perform a man-in-the-middle attack during the initial connection attempt, and to correctly guess the code being used by both sides. Their chance of doing this is inversely proportional to the entropy of the wormhole code. The default is to use a 16-bit code (use --code-length= to change this), so for each use of the tool, an attacker gets a 1-in-65536 chance of success. As such, users can expect to see many error messages before the attacker has a reasonable chance of success.
The program does not have any built-in timeouts, however it is expected that both clients will be run within an hour or so of each other. This makes the tool most useful for people who are having a real-time conversation already, and want to graduate to a secure connection. Both clients must be left running until the transfer has finished.
The wormhole library requires a "Rendezvous Server": a simple WebSocket-based relay that delivers messages from one client to another. This allows the wormhole codes to omit IP addresses and port numbers. The URL of a public server is baked into the library for use as a default, and will be freely available until volume or abuse makes it infeasible to support. Applications which desire more reliability can easily run their own relay and configure their clients to use it instead. Code for the Rendezvous Server is included in the library.
The file-transfer commands also use a "Transit Relay", which is another
simple server that glues together two inbound TCP connections and transfers
data on each to the other. The
wormhole send file mode shares the IP
addresses of each client with the other (inside the encrypted message), and
both clients first attempt to connect directly. If this fails, they fall back
to using the transit relay. As before, the host/port of a public server is
baked into the library, and should be sufficient to handle moderate traffic.
The protocol includes provisions to deliver notices and error messages to clients: if either relay must be shut down, these channels will be used to provide information about alternatives.
wormhole send [args] --text TEXT
wormhole send [args] FILENAME
wormhole send [args] DIRNAME
wormhole receive [args]
Both commands accept additional arguments to influence their behavior:
--code-length WORDS: use more or fewer than 2 words for the code
--verify: print (and ask user to compare) extra verification string
wormhole module makes it possible for other applications to use these
code-protected channels. This includes Twisted support, and (in the future)
will include blocking/synchronous support too. See docs/api.md for details.
The file-transfer tools use a second module named
provides an encrypted record-pipe. It knows how to use the Transit Relay as
well as direct connections, and attempts them all in parallel.
TransitReceiver are distinct, although once the
connection is established, data can flow in either direction. All data is
encrypted (using nacl/libsodium "secretbox") using a key derived from the
PAKE phase. See
src/wormhole/cli/cmd_send.py for examples.
This library is released under the MIT license, see LICENSE for details.
This library is compatible with python2.7, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, and 3.6 . It is probably compatible with py2.6, but the latest Twisted (>=15.5.0) is not.