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Distribute different AWS IAM credentials to different pods in Kubernetes via secrets.
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README.md

AWS IAM Controller for Kubernetes

Build Status Coverage Status

This is a Kubernetes controller for distributing AWS IAM role credentials to pods via secrets.

It aims to solve the same problem as other existing tools like jtblin/kube2iam and uswitch/kiam, namely distribute different AWS IAM roles to different pods within the same cluster. However, it solves the problem in a different way to work around an inherit problem with the architecture or kube2iam and similar solutions.

EC2 metadata service solution (kube2iam, kiam)

Kube2iam works by running an EC2 metadata service proxy on each node in order to intercept role requests made by pods using one of the AWS SDKs. Instead of forwarding the node IAM role to the pod, the proxy will make an assume role call to STS and get the role requested by the pod (via an annotation). If the assume role request is fast, everything is fine, and the pod will get the correct role. However, if the assume role request is too slow (>1s) then the AWS SDKs will timeout and try to get credentials via the next option in the chain (e.g. a file) resulting in the pod not getting the expected role or no role at all.

This is often not a problem in clusters with a stable workload, but if you have clusters with a very dynamic workload there will be a lot of cases where a pod starts before kube2iam is ready to provide the expected role. One case is when scaling up a cluster and a new pod lands on a fresh node before kube2iam, another case is when a new pod is created and starts before kube2iam got the event that the pod was created. During update of the kube2iam daemonset there will also be a short timeframe where the metadata url will be unavailable for the pods which could lead to a refresh of credentials failing.

Kubernetes secrets solution

Instead of running as a proxy on each node, this controller runs as a single instance and distributes AWS IAM credentials via secrets. This solves the race condition problem by relying on a property of Kubernetes which ensures that a secret, mounted by a pod, must exist before the pod is started. This means that the controller can even be away for a few minutes without affecting pods running in the cluster as they will still be able to mount and read the secrets. Furthermore having a single controller means there is only one caller for to the AWS API resulting in fewer calls which can prevent ratelimiting in big clusters and you don't need to give all nodes the power to assume other roles if it's not needed.

One minor trade-off with this solution is that each pod requiring AWS IAM credentials must define a secret mount rather than a single annotation.

NB This approach currently only works for some of the AWS SDKs. I'm reaching out to AWS to figure out if this is something that could be supported.

See the configuration guide for supported SDKs.

How it works

The controller continuously looks for custom AWSIAMRole resources which specify an AWS IAM role by name or by the full ARN. For each resource it finds, it will generate/update corresponding secrets containing credentialds for the IAM role specified. The secrets can be mounted by pods as a file enabling the AWS SDKs to use the credentials.

If an AWSIAMRole resource is deleted, the corresponding secret would be automatically cleaned up as well.

Specifying AWS IAM role on pods

See the configuration guide for supported SDKs.

In order to specify that a certain AWS IAM Role should be available for applications in a namespace you need to define an AWSIAMRole resource which references the IAM role you want:

apiVersion: zalando.org/v1
kind: AWSIAMRole
metadata:
  name: my-app-iam-role
spec:
  # The roleReference allows specifying an AWS IAM role name or arn
  # Possible values:
  #   "aws-iam-role-name"
  #   "arn:aws:iam::<account-id>:role/aws-iam-role-name"
  roleReference: <my-iam-role-name-or-arn>

The controller will detect the resource and create a corresponding secret with the same name containing the role credentials. To use the credentials in a pod you simply mount the secret (called my-app-iam-role in this example), making the credentials available as a file for your application to read and use. Additionally you must also define an environment variable AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE=/path/to/mounted/secret for each container. The environment variable is used by AWS SDKs and the AWS CLI to automatically find and use the credentials file.

See a full example in example-app.yaml.

Note: This way of specifying the role on pod specs are subject to change. It is currently moving a lot of effort on to the users defining the pod specs. A future idea is to make the controller act as an admission controller which can inject the required configuration automatically.

Setting up AWS IAM roles

The controller does not take care of AWS IAM role provisioning and assumes that the user provisions AWS IAM roles manually, for instance via CloudFormation or Terraform.

Here is an example of an AWS IAM role defined via CloudFormation:

Parameters:
  AssumeRoleARN: 
    Description: "Role ARN of the role used by kube-aws-iam-controller"
    Type: String
Metadata:
  StackName: "aws-iam-example"
AWSTemplateFormatVersion: "2010-09-09"
Description: "Example IAM Role"
Resources:
  IAMRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      RoleName: "aws-iam-example"
      Path: /
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Statement:
        - Action: sts:AssumeRole
          Effect: Allow
          Principal:
            AWS: !Ref "AssumeRoleARN"
        Version: '2012-10-17'
      Policies:
      - PolicyName:  "policy"
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: '2012-10-17'
          Statement:
          - Effect: Allow
            Action:
            - "ec2:Describe*"
            Resource: "*"

The role could be created via:

# $ASSUME_ROLE_ARN is the ARN of the role used by the kube-aws-iam-controller deployment
$ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name aws-iam-example \
  --parameters "ParameterKey=AssumeRoleARN,ParameterValue=$ASSUME_ROLE_ARN" \
  --template-body=file://iam-role.yaml --capabilities CAPABILITY_NAMED_IAM

The important part is the AssumeRolePolicyDocument:

AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
  Statement:
  - Action: sts:AssumeRole
    Effect: Allow
    Principal:
      AWS: !Ref "AssumeRoleARN"
  Version: '2012-10-17'

This allows the kube-aws-iam-controller to assume the role and provide credentials on behalf of the application requesting credentials via an AWSIAMRole resource in the cluster.

The AssumeRoleARN is the ARN of the role which the kube-aws-iam-controller is running with. Usually this would be the instance role of the EC2 instance were the controller is running.

Using custom Assume role

Sometimes it's desirable to let the controller assume roles with a specific role dedicated for that task i.e. a role different from the instance role. The controller allows specifying such a role via the --assume-role=<controller-role> flag providing the following setup:

                                                                           +-------------+
                                                                           |             |
                                                                      +--> | <app-role1> |
+-----------------+                +-------------------+              |    |             |
|                 |                |                   |              |    +-------------+
| <instance-role> | -- assumes --> | <controller-role> | -- assumes --+
|                 |                |                   |              |    +-------------+
+-----------------+                +-------------------+              |    |             |
                                                                      +--> | <app-role2> |
                                                                           |             |
                                                                           +-------------+

In this case the <instance-role> will only be used for the initial assuming of the <controller-role> and all <app-role>s are assumed by the <controller-role>. This makes it possible to have many different <instance-role>s while the <app-role>s only have to trust the single static <controller-role>. If you don't specify --assume-role then the <instance-role> would have to assume the <app-role>s.

Here is an example of the AWS IAM roles defined for this set-up to work:

Metadata:
  StackName: "aws-iam-assume-role-example"
AWSTemplateFormatVersion: "2010-09-09"
Description: "Example AWS IAM Assume Role"
Resources:
  InstanceIAMRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      RoleName: "instance-role"
      Path: /
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Statement:
        - Action: sts:AssumeRole
          Effect: Allow
          Principal:
            Service: ec2.amazonaws.com
        Version: '2012-10-17'
      Policies:
      - PolicyName:  "policy"
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: '2012-10-17'
          Statement:
          - Effect: Allow
            Action:
            - "sts:AssumeRole"
            Resource: "*"

  KubeAWSIAMControllerIAMRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      RoleName: "kube-aws-iam-controller"
      Path: /
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Statement:
        - Action: sts:AssumeRole
          Effect: Allow
          Principal:
            AWS: !Sub 'arn:${AWS::Partition}:iam::${AWS::AccountId}:role/${InstanceIAMRole}'
        Version: '2012-10-17'
      Policies:
      - PolicyName:  "policy"
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: '2012-10-17'
          Statement:
          - Effect: Allow
            Action:
            - "sts:AssumeRole"
            Resource: "*"

  APPIAMRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      RoleName: "app-role"
      Path: /
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Statement:
        - Action: sts:AssumeRole
          Effect: Allow
          Principal:
            AWS: !Sub 'arn:${AWS::Partition}:iam::${AWS::AccountId}:role/${KubeAWSIAMControllerIAMRole}'
        Version: '2012-10-17'
      Policies:
      - PolicyName:  "policy"
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: '2012-10-17'
          Statement:
          - Effect: Allow
            Action:
            - "ec2:Describe*"
            Resource: "*"

Setup

The kube-aws-iam-controller can be run as a deployment in the cluster. See deployment.yaml.

Deploy it by running:

$ kubectl apply -f docs/deployment.yaml

To ensure that pods requiring AWS IAM roles doesn't go to the EC2 metadata service of the node instead of using the credentials file provided by the secret you must block the metadata service from the pod network on each node. E.g. with an iptables rule:

$ /usr/sbin/iptables \
      --append PREROUTING \
      --protocol tcp \
      --destination 169.254.169.254 \
      --dport 80 \
      --in-interface cni0 \
      --match tcp \
      --jump DROP

Where cni0 is the interface of the pod network on the node.

Note: The controller will read all pods on startup and therefor the memory limit for the pod must be set relative to the number of pods in the cluster (i.e. vertical scaling).

Bootstrap in non-AWS environment

If you need access to AWS from another environment e.g. GKE then the controller can be deployed with seed credentials and refresh its own credentials used for the assume role calls similar to how it refreshes all other credentials.

To create the initial seed credentials you must configure an AWS IAM role used for the assume role calls. In this example the IAM role is created via cloudformation, but you can do it however you like. The important part is that the role has permissions to do sts calls as it will be assuming other roles. And you should also allow the role to be assumed by your own user for creating the initial seed credentials:

$ cat role.yaml
Metadata:
  StackName: kube-aws-iam-controller-role
Resources:
  KubeAWSIAMControllerRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      RoleName: kube-aws-iam-controller-role
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Version: '2012-10-17'
        Statement:
        - Action: ['sts:AssumeRole']
          Effect: Allow
          Principal:
            AWS: "<arn-of-your-user>"
        Version: '2012-10-17'
      Path: /
      Policies:
      - PolicyName: assumer-role
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: '2012-10-17'
          Statement:
          - Action:
            - sts:*
            Resource: "*"
            Effect: Allow
# create the role via cloudformation
$ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name kube-aws-iam-controller-role --template-body=file://role.yaml --capabilities CAPABILITY_NAMED_IAM

And then you can use the script ./scripts/get_credentials.sh to generate initial credentials and create a secret.

$ export ARN="arn.of.the.iam.role"
$ kubectl create secret generic kube-aws-iam-controller-iam-role --from-literal "credentials.json=$(./scripts/get_credentials.sh "$ARN")" --from-literal "credentials.process=$(printf "[default]\ncredential_process = cat /meta/aws-iam/credentials.json\n")"

Once the secret is created you can deploy the controller using the example manifest in deployment_with_role.yaml.

The controller will use the secret you created with temporary credentials and continue to refresh the credentials automatically.

Building

This project uses Go modules as introduced in Go 1.11 therefore you need Go >=1.11 installed in order to build. If using Go 1.11 you also need to activate Module support.

Assuming Go has been setup with module support it can be built simply by running:

export GO111MODULE=on # needed if the project is checked out in your $GOPATH.
$ make
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