Note: As of 2019, I do not intend to maintain this tool further myself. Feel free to fork it if you want. If a well maintained fork appears, let me know so I can link to it from here.
This bash script was designed to automate and simplify the remote backup process of duplicity on Amazon S3 primarily. Other backup destinations are possible (Google Cloud Storage, FTP, SFTP, SCP, rsync, file...), i.e. any of duplicity's supported outputs.
After your script is configured, you can easily backup, restore, verify and clean (either via cron or manually) your data without having to remember lots of different command options and passphrases.
Most importantly, you can easily backup the script and your gpg key in a convenient passphrase-encrypted file. This comes in in handy if/when your machine ever does go belly up.
Optionally, you can set up an email address where the log file will be sent, which is useful when the script is used via cron.
This version is a rewriting of the code originally written by Damon Timm, including many patches that have been brought to the original scripts by various forks on Github. Thanks to all the contributors!
More information about this script is available at https://zertrin.org/projects/duplicity-backup/
The original version of the code is available at https://github.com/theterran/dt-s3-backup
duplicity-backup.sh IS NOT duplicity
It is only a wrapper script for duplicity written in bash!
This means the following:
- You need to install AND configure duplicity BEFORE using duplicity-backup.sh
- The official documentation of duplicity is relevant to duplicity-backup.sh too. Virtually any option supported by duplicity can be specified in the config file of duplicity-backup.sh. See the
CLEAN_UP_VARIABLEparameters in particular.
- Before asking something about duplicity-backup.sh, ensure that your question isn’t actually concerning duplicity ;) First, make sure you can perform a backup with duplicity without using this script. If you can't make the backup work with duplicity alone, the problem is probably concerning duplicity and not this script. If you manage to make a backup with duplicity alone but not with this script, then there is probably a problem with duplicity-backup.sh.
- In particular, to the question "Does duplicity-backup.sh support the backend XXX" (with XXX being for example Amazon Glacier), the answer is always the same: "duplicity-backup.sh uses duplicity, so ask the developers of duplicity ;) Once it's in duplicity, it's automatically available to duplicity-backup.sh"
The development version of the code is available at https://github.com/zertrin/duplicity-backup.sh in the
dev branch. It is a bleeding-edge version with the latest changes that have not yet been tested a lot, but that's the best starting point to contribute.
Pull requests are welcome! However please always use individual feature branches for each pull request. I may not accept a pull request from a master or dev branch.
Here is how to do it:
Fork the repository first and then clone your fork on your machine:
git clone email@example.com:YOURNAME/duplicity-backup.sh.git duplicity-backup cd duplicity-backup
Add a remote for the upstream repository:
git remote add upstream firstname.lastname@example.org:zertrin/duplicity-backup.sh.git git fetch upstream
Create a new topic branch for the changes you want to make, based on the
dev branch from upstream:
git checkout -b my-fix-1 upstream/dev
Make your changes, test them, commit them and push them to Github:
git push origin my-fix-1
Open a Pull request from
If you want to open another pull request for another change which is independent of the previous one, just create another topic branch based on master (
git checkout -b my-fix-2 upstream/dev)
1. Get the script
You can clone the repository (which makes it easy to get future updates):
git clone https://github.com/zertrin/duplicity-backup.sh.git duplicity-backup
If you prefer the stable (but old) version do:
git checkout stable
... or if you want the normal version, then:
git checkout master
... or if you like living on the edge (or need the latest bugfixes), you can stay at the development version which is automatically cloned.
Or just download the ZIP file:
2. Configure the script
This script requires user configuration. Instructions are in the config file itself and should be self-explanatory. You SHOULD NOT edit the example config file
duplicity-backup.conf.example, but instead make a copy of it (for example to
/etc/duplicity-backup.conf) and edit this one.
Be sure to replace all the foobar values with your real ones. Almost every value needs to be configured in someway.
The script looks for its configuration by reading the path to the config file specified by the command line option
--config (see Usage)
If no config file was given on the command line, the script will try to find the file specified in the
CONFIG parameter at the beginning of the script (default:
duplicity-backup.conf in the script's directory).
So be sure to either:
- specify the configuration file path on the command line with the
- or to edit the
CONFIGparameter in the script to match the actual location of your config file. [deprecated] (will be removed in future versions of the script)
NOTE: to ease future updates of the script, you may prefer NOT to edit the script at all and to specify systematically the path to your config file on the command line with the
You can use one copy of the script and call it with different config file for different backup scenarios. It is designed to run as a cron job and will log information to a text file (including remote file sizes, if you use Amazon S3 and have
Be sure to make the script executable if needed (
chmod +x) before you hit the gas.
1. Get the new version
If you got the script by cloning the repository, upgrading is easy:
else just download again the ZIP archive an extract it over the existing folder. (Don't forget to keep a backup of the previous folder to be able to rollback easily if needed)
2. Adapt the config file if needed
Then compare the example config file (
duplicity-backup.conf.example) with your modified version (for example
/etc/duplicity-backup.conf) and adapt your copy to reflect the changes in the example file.
There are many ways to do so, here are some examples (adapt the path to your actual files):
diff duplicity-backup.conf.example /etc/duplicity-backup.conf vimdiff duplicity-backup.conf.example /etc/duplicity-backup.conf
- Basic utilities like: bash, which, find and tee (should already be available on most Linux systems)
optional(if using encryption)
optional(if sending mail is activated in the script)
For the Amazon S3 storage backend
For the Backblaze B2 storage backend
For the Google Cloud Storage storage backend
duplicity-backup.sh [options] Options: -c, --config CONFIG_FILE specify the config file to use -b, --backup runs an incremental backup -f, --full forces a full backup -v, --verify verifies the backup -e, --cleanup cleanup the backup (eg. broken sessions), by default using duplicity --force flag, use --dry-run to actually log what will be cleaned up without removing (see man duplicity > ACTIONS > cleanup for details) -l, --list-current-files lists the files currently backed up in the archive -s, --collection-status show all the backup sets in the archive --restore [PATH] restores the entire backup to [path] --restore-file [FILE_TO_RESTORE] [DESTINATION] restore a specific file --restore-dir [DIR_TO_RESTORE] [DESTINATION] restore a specific directory -t, --time TIME specify the time from which to restore or list files (see duplicity man page for the format) --backup-script automatically backup the script and secret key(s) to the current working directory -n, --dry-run perform a trial run with no changes made -d, --debug echo duplicity commands to logfile -V, --version print version information about this script and duplicity
Run an incremental backup:
duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --backup
Force a one-off full backup:
duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --full
Restore your entire backup:
# You will be prompted for a restore directory duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --restore # You can also provide a restore folder on the command line. duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --restore /home/user/restore-folder
Restore a specific file or directory in the backup:
Note that the commands
--restore-dir are equivalent.
# You will be prompted for a file to restore to the current directory duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --restore-file # Restores the file img/mom.jpg to the current directory duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --restore-file img/mom.jpg # Restores the file img/mom.jpg to /home/user/i-love-mom.jpg duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --restore-file img/mom.jpg /home/user/i-love-mom.jpg # Restores the directory rel/dir/path to /target/restorepath duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --restore-dir rel/dir/path /target/restorepath
List files in the remote archive
duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --list-current-files
See the collection status (i.e. all the backup sets in the remote archive)
duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --collection-status
Verify the backup
duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --verify
Clean the backup
duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --cleanup
Backup the script and gpg key in a encrypted tarfile (for safekeeping)
duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] --backup-script
Cron Usage Example (backup)
41 3 * * * /absolute/path/to/duplicity-backup.sh -c /etc/duplicity-backup.conf -b
Cron Usage Example (cleanup)
41 4 * * 1 /absolute/path/to/duplicity-backup.sh -c /etc/duplicity-backup.conf -e
GPG error if system locale is not english
If your system's locale is not english, an error can happen when duplicity is trying to encrypt the files with gpg. This problem concerns duplicity and has been reported upstream (see bug report). A simple workaround is to set the following environement variable:
LANG=C. For example:
LANG=C duplicity-backup.sh [-c config_file] ... or in the cron
41 3 * * * LANG=C /absolute/path/to/duplicity-backup.sh -c /etc/duplicity-backup.conf -b
"/dev/fd/62: Operation not supported" errors on FreeBSD
See issue #143 for a fix.
This script attempts to simplify the task of running a duplicity command; if you are having any problems with the script the first step is to determine if the script is generating an incorrect command or if duplicity itself is causing your error.
To see exactly what is happening when you run duplicity-backup.sh, either pass the option
--debug on the command line, or head to the bottom of the configuration file and uncomment the
ECHO=$(which echo) variable.
This will stop the script from running and will, instead, output the generated command into your log file. You can then check to see if what is being generated is causing an error or if it is duplicity causing you woe.
You can also try the
--dry-run option. This will make duplicity to calculate what would be done, but does not perform any backend actions. Together with info verbosity level (-v8) duplicity will list all files that will be affected. This way you will know exactly which files will be backed up or restored.
- Backup to multiple destinations with one config file
- Show backup-ed files in today incremental backup email