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SCOOP v2.1.1

A compiler and static analysis of task parallel C programs.


If SCOOP contributes to a project that leads to a scientific publication, please acknowledge this work by citing the corresponding paper Inference and Declaration of Independence in Task-Parallel Programs (also available here).

Annotation Syntax

#pragma scoop start(list of variables)
#pragma scoop finish
#pragma scoop malloc
#pragma scoop free
#pragma scoop sync
#pragma scoop barrier
#pragma scoop wait all
#pragma scoop wait on(list of variables)
#pragma scoop task [in(<input parameters>)]
                   [inout(<input parameters>)]
                   [out(<input parameters>)]

Parameter notation:

  Non stride: <parameter>[\[number of elements (for arrays)\]]

  Stride: <parameter>\[Block Rows|Block Columns\]\[[Array Rows|]Array Columns\]

  Array Rows is optional and is totally ignored

  The parameter size/stride/els/elsz must be an expression, thus we
  don't allow function calls. Also there is no support for the
  conditional operator (? :)

  #pragma scoop task in(a, b[4]) out(c[16])


This section describes how to install SCOOP on your system. We suppose that you have checked out/cloned SCOOP under /opt/scoop directory. However the same instructions should apply for any alternative path, simply replacing /opt/scoop with the desired alternative path for the rest of this section.


In order to build SCOOP you will need to install the following packages:

  • ocaml ≥ 3.11.2
  • camlp4/ocaml-camlp4/ocaml-camlp4-devel
  • Flex
  • bison
  • indent
  • ncurses-devel
  • emacs
  • gperf


To compile SCOOP you have to run configure and then make.

./configure && make


You can install SCOOP running

sudo make install

this will create a copy of the scoop executable in /usr/local/bin.

NOTE: You still have to keep the current directory to your system.

Alternatively you can append /opt/scoop to the PATH variable, i.e,

echo "export PATH=$PATH:/opt/scoop" >> $HOME/.bashrc


You can uninstall SCOOP running

sudo make uninstall

this will erase the copy of the scoop executable from /usr/local/bin.

If you chose the alternative method of adding /opt/scoop to your PATH variable, simply remove the added line from your .bashrc.


scoop --runtime=<myrmics/dummy> [options] <file> [file2 ...]


--runtime                         SCOOP: Define the target runtime (myrmics | dummy)
--cflags                          SCOOP: Define the flags you want to pass to gcc.
--include-path                    SCOOP: Define the path containing the runtime header files.
--debug-SCOOP                     SCOOP: Print debugging information.
--trace                           SCOOP: Trace SCOOP.
--out-name                        SCOOP: Specify the output files' prefix. e.g. (default: scoop_trans) will produce scoop_trans.c (and scoop_trans_func.c for cell)
--pragma                          SCOOP: Specify the string constant following the pragma e.g. (default: runtime name) myrmics will recognise #pragma myrmics ... 
--disable-sdam                    SCOOP: Disable the static dependence analysis module (SDAM)
--myrmics-main-function           SCOOP: Specify the name of the main function for the myrmics runtime (default: main)

Extending SCOOP

In order to add support for your runtime on the SCOOP compiler you have to take the following steps.

  1. copy src/ and src/scoop_dummy.mli to src/ and src/scoop_myruntime.mli respectively.
  2. append scoop_myruntime to the SCOOP_MODULES variable in Makefile.
  3. Perform any required changes to src/
  4. Append Scoop_myruntime.options to fd_extraopt in src/
  5. Add the following lines to match !arch with in src/ | "myruntime" -> new Scoop_myruntime.codegen callgraph !gen_file !pragma_str !includePath

Common Errors/Limitations/Known Bugs

  • Adding a semicolon at the end of #pragmas will make SCOOP fail, i.e., #pragma scoop sync;
  • Putting #pragma scoop barrier at the end of a block will make SCOOP fail (add a semicolon right below the #pragma to fix it).
  • Fatal error: exception Invalid_argument("Unknown") you probably have wrong argument at a call tagged with #pragma scoop task
  • Using DEFINES or MACROS in pragmas (preprocessor doesn't process them)
  • Putting #pragma directly above a declaration of a variable (pragmas are only supported above statements)
  • Using directly the runtime API instead of the corresponding #pragma may result in SDAM not working properly.
  • Error: "segment___0" not found in the #pragma scoop task usually means that the tool is renaming a variable due to previous declaration try renaming it manually (e.g. segment2) (This should be fixed by now)


A compiler and static analysis of task parallel C programs.




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