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Generic SQL DAO plugin for Para

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What is this?

Para was designed as a simple and modular back-end framework for object persistence and retrieval. It enables your application to store objects directly to a data store (NoSQL) or any relational database (RDBMS) and it also automatically indexes those objects and makes them searchable.

This plugin allows Para to store data in virtually any SQL database.


Read the Docs

Getting started

The plugin is on Maven Central. Here's the Maven snippet to include in your pom.xml:


Alternatively you can download the JAR from the "Releases" tab above put it in a lib folder alongside the server WAR file para-x.y.z.war. Para will look for plugins inside lib and pick up the plugin but the plugin itself will try to load the correct driver and needs to know where to look for it. That's why you have to set the system property loader.path=./lib.

Supported database engines

  • SQL Server
  • PostgreSQL
  • MySQL
  • MariaDB
  • Redshift
  • H2 DB
  • Oracle
  • SQLite


Here are all the configuration properties for this plugin (these go inside your application.conf):

para.sql.driver = "com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"
para.sql.url = "mysql://localhost:3306"
para.sql.user = "user"
para.sql.password = "secret"

Finally, set the DAO config property - for H2 DB this must be equal to H2DAO, for the other databases it should be:

para.dao = "SqlDAO"

This could be a Java system property or part of a application.conf file on the classpath. This tells Para to use the SqlDAO Data Access Object (DAO) implementation instead of the default.

SQLite, for example, has the simplest configuration:

para.sql.driver = "org.sqlite.JDBC"
para.sql.url = "sqlite:/home/user/para.db"

The environment variable para.sql.url is required and provides the URL to connect to the SQL database. The SQL DAO uses JDBC and will prefix your URL with the JDBC protocol, so you don't need to include the JDBC protocol in your URL path. For example, to connect to a MySQL server with URL mysql://localhost:3306, the SQL DAO will prefix this URL with the JDBC protocol to form the full URL jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306.

The URL you specify should also include in it's path the database to be used by Para. The SQL DAO will not automatically create a database for you (though Para does create tables within your database automatically), so you must use an existing database. For example, you cannot simply specify the URL to your MySQL cluster/server (mysql://localhost:3306), but rather you need to specify the path to an existing database (mysql://localhost:3306/para). Note that the user name and password you provide with para.sql.user and para.sql.password should correspond to the specific database you specify in the URL, and that user should have complete permissions within that database.

Using a JDBC Driver

The SQL DAO uses JDBC to connect to your SQL database, which means a SQL driver (java.sql.Driver) will be needed for your chosen flavor of SQL (for example, com.mysql.jdbc.Driver is used for MySQL). You must specify the fully-qualified class name for your SQL driver. Upon initialization, the SQL DAO will attempt to load this driver and verify that it exists in the classpath. If the driver cannot be found, the SQL DAO will fail to initiailize and the DAO cannot be used.

In addition to specifying the driver name, you need to ensure the JAR file containing the SQL driver corresponding to your database is on your classpath when launching Para Server. The easiest way to do this is to add your SQL driver's JAR file to the lib/ directory relative to the location of the Para Server WAR file para-x.y.z.war.

Working with Oracle database

To use Oracle DB you need to create a user (schema) for Para, with CREATE SESSION and CREATE TABLE privileges. You also need to enable writes on the USERS tablespace if you get an error like ora-01950: no privileges on tablespace 'users'.

ALTER USER para quota unlimited on USERS;

Then the configuration will look something like this:

para.sql.driver = "oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver"
para.sql.url = "oracle:thin:@"
para.sql.user = "para"
para.sql.password = "secret"

If you are have a sysdba/sysoper type of user, you can set para.sql.user = "para as sysdba". The plugin has been tested with the Express edition of Oracle 18c database.


BREAKING CHANGE: The schema has changed in v1.30.0 - columns timestamp and updated were removed, column json_updates was added. H2DAO attempts to apply these changes automatically or error, but SqlDAO does not. Execute the following statements one after another before switching to the new version:

ALTER TABLE {app_identifier} DROP COLUMN timestamp, updated;
ALTER TABLE {app_identifier} ADD json_updates NVARCHAR;

This is not required for tables created after v1.30.0.

Here's the schema for each table created by Para:

CREATE TABLE {app_identifier} (
    id            NVARCHAR NOT NULL,
    type          NVARCHAR,
    name          NVARCHAR,
    parentid      NVARCHAR,
    creatorid     NVARCHAR,
    json          NVARCHAR,
    json_updates  NVARCHAR



Apache 2.0