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LFOps is an Ansible Collection of generic Roles, Playbooks and Plugins for managing Linux-based Cloud Infrastructures.

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LFOps - Ansible Collection of Roles, Playbooks and Plugins for managing Linux-based Cloud Infrastructures

The Purpose of LFOps

LFOps is like DebOps a collection of Free and Open Source tools that allow users to bootstrap and manage an IT infrastructure based on RHEL and other operating systems. Ansible is used as the main configuration management platform. LFOps provides a collection of Ansible roles that manage various services, as well as a set of Ansible playbooks that tie them together in a highly integrated environment.

LFOps is designed to be used within the Linuxfabrik. Nevertheless, we try to keep its general-purpose as much as possible.

Installation

To install the stable release of the collection:

ansible-galaxy collection install linuxfabrik.lfops

To install the development version of the collection (requires ansible >= 2.10):

# via HTTPS
ansible-galaxy collection install git+https://github.com/Linuxfabrik/lfops.git

# via SSH
ansible-galaxy collection install git@github.com:Linuxfabrik/lfops.git

To use the git repository directly (just for development purposes):

git clone git@github.com:Linuxfabrik/lfops.git
mkdir -p ~/.ansible/collections/ansible_collections/linuxfabrik/
ln -s /path/to/lfops ~/.ansible/collections/ansible_collections/linuxfabrik/

How to use LFOps

Example: If you want to run playbooks/php.yml, place your host myhost in the lfops_php group. After that, run:

ansible-playbook --inventory path/to/inventory linuxfabrik.lfops.php --limit myhost

For more details on group names, Ansible tags, etc., see the playbooks and README files for the roles.

A typical Workflow Example

First, add myhost to the corresponding groups in your Ansible inventory.

[lfops_hetzner_vm]
myhost

[lfops_setup_basic]
myhost

[lfops_monitoring_plugins]
myhost

[lfops_setup_nextcloud]
myhost

After that run the corresponding playbooks (optionally append parameters like --diff and/or --check):

ansible-playbook --inventory path/to/inventory linuxfabrik.lfops.hetzner_vm --limit myhost

Run the basic setup:

ansible-playbook --inventory path/to/inventory linuxfabrik.lfops.setup_basic --limit myhost

Deploy a component:

ansible-playbook --inventory path/to/inventory linuxfabrik.lfops.monitoring_plugins --limit myhost

Deploy a full-fledged application (playbooks for complex application setups are prefixed by setup_):

ansible-playbook --inventory path/to/inventory linuxfabrik.lfops.setup_nextcloud --limit myhost

Change some settings afterwards, for example in PHP:

ansible-playbook --inventory path/to/inventory linuxfabrik.lfops.setup_nextcloud --limit myhost --tags php

Compatibility List

Which Ansible role is proven to run on which OS? See COMPATIBILTY

Skipping Roles in a Playbook

Note: this is currently only implemented in this form in the setup_icinga2_master playbook.

The playbooks offer the option to skip roles based on variables that can be set in the inventory. For example to skip the setup of IcingaWeb2 for Icinga2 master, set setup_icinga2_master__icingaweb2__skip_role: true.

Setting this also disables the injections coming from the icingaweb2 role. Normally, the icingaweb2 role injects databases and users to the mariadb_server role. This is now disabled. To re-activate this behaviour, also set setup_icinga2_master__icingaweb2__skip_injections: false. This is useful when one wants to run MariaDB and IcingaWeb2 on different hosts.

In short:

  • playbook_name__role_name__skip_role:

    • Skips the role and disables the role's injections.
    • Have a look at the playbook for the default value.
  • playbook_name__role_name__skip_role_injections:

    • Disables or re-enables the role's injections. Takes priority over playbook_name__role_name__skip_role.
    • Defaults to playbook_name__role_name__skip_role for ease of use.
    • Have a look at the playbook for the affected injections.

Bitwarden

Requires the bw CLI version v2022.9.0+.

If you want to use Bitwarden as your password manager backend, do a lookup in your inventory like this:

grafana_grizzly__grafana_service_account_login:
  "{{ lookup('linuxfabrik.lfops.bitwarden_item',
    {
      'hostname': inventory_hostname,
      'purpose': 'Grafana Service Account Token',
      'username': 'grizzly',
      'collection_id': lfops__bitwarden_collection_id,
      'organization_id': lfops__bitwarden_organization_id,
    },
  ) }}"

Before running Ansible, unlock the access to your Bitwarden vault and start the Bitwarden RESTful API webserver as follows:

export BW_SESSION="$(bw unlock --raw)"
bw status | jq
bw serve --hostname 127.0.0.1 --port 8087 &

After that run your playbook as usual:

ansible-playbook ...

The LFOps Bitwarden module will fetch the item from the vault and create it if it does not exist. See ansible-doc -t lookup linuxfabrik.lfops.bitwarden_item for all the details.

The lookup normally returns multiple keys, including the username and password subkeys. If only the password is required, use the following lookup:

freeipa_server__directory_manager_password:
  "{{ lookup('linuxfabrik.lfops.bitwarden_item',
    {
      'hostname': inventory_hostname,
      'purpose': 'FreeIPA',
      'username': 'cn=Directory Manager',
      'collection_id': lfops__bitwarden_collection_id,
      'organization_id': lfops__bitwarden_organization_id,
    },
  )['password'] }}"

Beware that if you are using the lookup in group_vars, you probably do not want to use inventory_hostname. For example, the following would create a new login for each FreeIPA client:

freeipa_server__ipa_admin_password:
  "{{ lookup('linuxfabrik.lfops.bitwarden_item',
    {
      'hostname': inventory_hostname,
      'purpose': 'FreeIPA',
      'username': 'admin',
      'collection_id': lfops__bitwarden_collection_id,
      'organization_id': lfops__bitwarden_organization_id,
    },
  )['password'] }}"

Instead, replace inventory_hostname with the correct FreeIPA server hostname:

freeipa_server__ipa_admin_password:
  "{{ lookup('linuxfabrik.lfops.bitwarden_item',
    {
      'hostname': 'freeipa.example.com',
      'purpose': 'FreeIPA',
      'username': 'admin',
      'collection_id': lfops__bitwarden_collection_id,
      'organization_id': lfops__bitwarden_organization_id,
    },
  )['password'] }}"

Documentation

  • Ansible Roles: Each role has its own README file.
  • Ansible Plugins: The documentation for all plugins is available through ansible-doc. For example, ansible-doc linuxfabrik.lfops.gpg_key shows the documentation for the GPG key managing module.

The "all" Playbook

Imagine that you want to deploy an updated MariaDB dump script to all hosts that have a MariaDB server. This would mean that you would need to run not only the linuxfabrik.lfops.mariadb_server playbook, but also all playbooks that include MariaDB Server, e.g. linuxfabrik.lfops.setup_wordpress, etc. To simplify this, you can simply use the linuxfabrik.lfops.all playbook, which imports all other playbooks. Make sure you use it with --tags and --limit to get the desired effect.

LFOps-wide Variables

There are a handful of variables that are used across roles. It is still possible to overwrite the LFOps-wide variable with the role-specific one.

lfops__monitoring_plugins_version

This variable is used as the default whenever the version of the Linuxfabrik Monitoring Plugins repo is required. Have a look at the monitoring_plugins Role README for details.

Example:

lfops__monitoring_plugins_version: 'main'

lfops__remove_rpmnew_rpmsave

This variable aims to simplify the management of rpmnew and rpmsave files (and their Debian equivalents) by allowing the admin to remove them with LFOps. The workflow would be to adjust the template in LFOps according to the new config file, then deploy with --extra-vars='lfops__remove_rpmnew_rpmsave=true' to update the config and remove the rpmnew / rpmsave in one run.

lfops__repo_basic_auth_login

This variable is used as the default across all repo_* roles if it is set. Can be used to authenticate against the repository server using HTTP basic auth. Have a look at the respective role's README for details.

Note: Currently this only works for RPM repositories.

Example:

lfops__repo_basic_auth_login:
  username: 'mirror-user'
  password: 'linuxfabrik'

lfops__repo_mirror_url

This variable is used as the default across all repo_* roles if it is set. Can be used to set the URL to a custom mirror server providing the repository. Have a look at the respective role's README for details.

Example:

lfops__repo_mirror_url: 'https://mirror.example.com'

Tips, Tricks & Troubleshooting

ansible_become: true

Don't use become: true or ansible_become: true in role playbooks. Instead, set ansible_become: true in your group_vars or host_vars ONLY (not in all.yml - localhost must not be part of the group. Otherwise you'll get errors like sudo: a password is required).

Finding all groups a host belongs to

When running playbooks against a host it might be useful to know all the group memberships.

ansible --inventory path/to/inventory myhost -m debug -a "var=group_names"

Connecting as an unprivileged user, correct sudoers config

When connecting as an unprivileged user, you must make sure that the user is allowed to change to all other user accounts, not just root. Otherwise it will be impossible to run tasks as other unprivileged users, for example become_user: 'apache'. This means that the Runas_Spec in sudoers must be (ALL), for example:

ansible-user ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL

or

ansible-user ALL=(ALL) ALL

Finding out which playbooks ran against a host

All playbooks log every run to /var/log/linuxfabrik-lfops.log on the host. For example:

2024-05-23 11:15:26.604794 - Playbook linuxfabrik.lfops.apps: START
2024-05-23 11:15:32.877064 - Playbook linuxfabrik.lfops.apps: END