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Current status: Stable Beta (Please Read)

2024-07-14 UPDATE: Toshy was recently mentioned favorably in a video on Framework's YouTube channel, about transitioning from macOS to Linux, by Zach Feldman, a lead software engineer on the Marketplace team at Framework. I discovered this quite by accident, watching the video simply because it was in my recommended videos and the title said it was about macOS and Linux, and I've watched several videos from the Framework team. Imagine my surprise when Zach said one of the more important tools that allowed him to use Linux productively after using macOS for many years was Toshy. 😲🤯 Well, I can't be that surprised, since that's exactly why Toshy (and Kinto) were put together.

2024-07-05 UPDATE: Adding to both of the performance updates below, some lists in the config file that are accessed frequently were optimized in a way that once again reduced overall CPU usage while typing. In testing on a multi-core system the CPU usage is usually less than 2%, even while processing keys much faster than most people can type.

2024-06-28 UPDATE: Additional performance (reduction in CPU usage) was gained by rearranging the order of evaluation of multi-condition modmap and keymap conditional expressions in the config file. Conditions that were "lighter" like a simple boolean variable check were placed before conditions that are computationally "heavier", like asking the matching function to evaluate a list of context conditions. This optimization procedure had a surprisingly large effect on how much CPU is used during rapid typing (tested by mashing keys as fast as possible). To get these optimizations of the config file, you will need to grab a new zip file and reinstall Toshy.The improvements from this optimization of the config file conditionals are in addition to the performance improvements described in the earlier update below.

2024-06-15 UPDATE: Some major performance updates to a core property matching function have significantly reduced the CPU usage of Toshy while typing, especially while typing very fast. This should reduce the incidence of seeing a "delay" in characters appearing while typing, which can happen sometimes when a system is experiencing high CPU usage in general. (You can do something like sudo renice -n -10 $(pgrep xwaykeyz) if you still have an issue with that, and want the keymapper process to have a higher priority when the system is under heavy load.) There was also a sort of fix inside the keymapper recently to keep repeating keys from using up CPU for no particular benefit. Any new install of Toshy, even from an older zip file, will get that when it clones the keymapper from its GitHub repo. Mostly this will be meaningful in gaming situations where one needs to hold down non-modifier keys, which used to cause the keymapper to use an entire core (or thread) for as long as the key was held down.

Main issues you might run into

  • KDE USERS: Did your system update itself from KDE Plasma 5 to Plasma 6, and Toshy stopped working? And you installed Toshy before January 2024? Just grab a new zip file from the big green <> Code ▼ button and reinstall. Your config customizations and preference choices should be preserved (if you made your config changes within the "slice marks"). Support for Plasma 6 was added around late December 2023.

  • KEYBOARD TYPE: The Toshy config file tries to automatically identify the "type" of your keyboard based on some pre-existing lists of keyboard device names, which do not have many entries, and there are thousands of keyboard name variants. So your keyboard may be misidentified, leading to modifier keys in the "wrong" place. BE PREPARED to identify the name of your keyboard device (try toshy-devices in a terminal) and enter it into the custom list (actually a Python "dictionary") in the config file to fix this problem. The custom entry is designed to be retained even if you reinstall later. There is a sub-menu in the tray icon menu intended to allow temporarily bypassing this problem while you find the device name and enter it in your config file. Go to this FAQ entry for more info:

    Keyboard Type Not Correct

  • INTERNATIONAL KEYBOARD USERS: The keymapper is evdev-based and has no idea what keyboard layout you are using, and only sees "key codes", not the symbols on the keys. So if it encounters a combo of key codes you've asked it to remap to something else, it will remap it. This is a problem if for instance you're on an AZERTY keyboard where A and Q are swapped, and you think you're pressing Cmd+A but the keymapper thinks you want to remap Cmd+Q to Alt+F4. I'm looking into a way to get the keymapper to use the proper layout, but in the meantime depending on how different your layout is from the standard US layout, this keymapper may be unusable or may just need some tweaks to the key definition file to fix a few key positions. Open an issue if you have this kind of problem.

  • DISTRO SUPPORT: Toshy will have issues installing on distros not on the list of supported distros in the Wiki. If you think your distro is closely related to one on the supported list, try the ./ list-distros command, and then use one of the distro names with the --override-distro option added to the ./ install command. See the How to Install section.

  • STARTUP: Toshy may seem to run at login, but not do any remapping, needing the use of the debugging command toshy-config-verbose-start in the terminal to troubleshoot. Or, it may just need a restart of the services from the tray icon or with toshy-services-restart. Check the output of toshy-services-log and toshy-services-status first to see if there is an obvious error message that explains the problem. Like not having a compatible GNOME Shell extension installed/enabled to support a Wayland+GNOME session. Other than the Wayland+GNOME situation, I don't really see this much anymore.

  • INIT SYSTEMS: On a dual-init distro like MX Linux, if you install Toshy while using SysVinit (default on MX) the installer will avoid installing the systemd packages and service unit files. If you then switch to using systemd as init at the boot screen (you can do this from the "Advanced" menu) you'll need to re-run the Toshy installer (only once) while using systemd to make Toshy work automatically like it does on other distros where the default init is systemd. Or, you can just keep running the config manually, like is currently necessary under SysVinit and any other init system besides systemd.


• • • • • • • Toshy app icon inverse grayscale • • • • • • • Toshy app icon inverted • • • • • • • Toshy app icon

Make your Linux keyboard act like a 'Tosh!
(or, What the Heck is This?!?)

Toshy is a config file for the xwaykeyz Python-based keymapper for Linux (which was forked from keyszer, which was in turn forked from xkeysnail) along with some commands and apps to more conveniently interact with and manage the keymapper. The Toshy config is not strictly a fork of Kinto, but was based in the beginning entirely on the config file for by Ben Reaves ( or Without Kinto, Toshy would not exist. Using Toshy should feel basically the same as using Kinto, just with some new features and some problems solved.

The purpose of Toshy is to match, as closely as possible, the behavior of keyboard shortcuts in macOS when working on similar applications in Linux. General system-wide shortcuts such as Cmd+Q/W/R/T/A/Z/X/C/V and so on are relatively easy to mimic by just moving the modifier key locations, with modmaps specific to each supported keyboard type. A lot of shortcuts in Linux just use Ctrl in the place of where macOS would use Cmd. But many other shortcut combos from macOS applications have to be remapped onto entirely different shortcut combos in the Linux equivalent application. This is done using application-specific keymaps, that only become active when you are using the specified application or window. Some of the keymaps apply to entire groups of apps, like "terminals" or "file managers".

All of this basic functionality is inherited from Kinto. Toshy just tries to be a bit fancier in implementing it.


You DO NOT need to and SHOULD NOT change any native keyboard shortcuts in Linux apps when using this keymapper config. If you've already changed some existing in-app shortcuts to try to mimic macOS shortcuts, you will need to reset those in-app shortcuts to their defaults. The keymapper config non-destructively (and temporarily, only while enabled) remaps hundreds of Mac-like shortcut combos onto the default native shortcuts for many apps in Linux, and global shortcuts. If those defaults are not in place, things will appear to "not work".

Depending on the desktop environment, there are sometimes a couple of global shortcuts for app launchers and modifier-only shortcuts that need to be changed or disabled for the smoothest experience. Those changes are minimal and easily reversible.

Competing techniques of remapping modifier keys like other keymappers or ~/.Xmodmap should be reversed/disabled before trying to use Toshy, or the resulting virtualized modifier locations won't make much sense. The Toshy installer will throw a warning about ~/.Xmodmap if it exists, to remind you about potential conflicts.

If you're on an Apple keyboard and you chose "Apple" as the hardware keyboard model in a desktop environment like KDE to try to "fix" the modifier locations prior to trying Toshy, this may also interfere with getting the expected results. Leave the keyboard model in the DE settings to whatever it defaulted to, which is usually something like "Generic 101-key". Then Toshy's modifier remaps can take care of making the keyboard behave predictably like an Apple keyboard (even if it is not an Apple keyboard).

Toshifying an Application

A detailed guide to how to identify a window's application class and make a new keymap to apply shortcut remaps to a particular Linux application has been moved into this Wiki article:

Windows Support

Toshy has no Windows version, unlike the project. I was trying to solve a number of issues and add features to the Linux version of Kinto, so that's all I'm focused on for Toshy. The Windows version of Kinto works great. Go check it out if you need Mac-like keyboard shortcuts on Windows. I also contribute to Kinto on the Windows side.

Keyboard Types

Four different keyboard types are supported by Toshy (Windows/PC, Mac/Apple, IBM and Chromebook), just as in Kinto. But Toshy does its best to automatically treat each keyboard device as the correct type in real-time, as you use it, rather than requiring you to change the keyboard type from a menu. This means that you should be able to use an Apple keyboard connected to a PC laptop, or an IBM keyboard connected to a MacBook, and shortcut combos on both the external and internal keyboards should work as expected, with the modifier keys appearing to be in the correct place to "Act like a 'Tosh".

Option-key Special Characters

Toshy includes a complete implementation of the macOS Option-key special characters, including all the "dead key" accent keys, from two keyboard layouts. The standard US keyboard layout, and the "ABC Extended" layout (which is still a US keyboard layout otherwise). This adds up to somewhere over 600 special characters being available, between the two layouts. It works the same way it does on macOS, when you hold the Option or Shift+Option keys. For example, Option+E, then Shift+E, gets you an "E" with Acute accent: É.

The special characters may not work as expected unless you add a bit of "throttle" delay to the macro output. This is an xwaykeyz API function that inserts timing delays in the output of combos that involve modifier keys. There is a general problem with Linux keymappers using libinput in a lot of situations, especially in virtual machines, with the modifier key presses being misinterpreted as occuring at a slightly different time, leading to problems with macro output.

A slight delay will usually clear this right up, but a virtual machine environment may need a few dozen milliseconds to achieve macro stability. In fact it's not just macros, but many shortcuts in general may seem very flaky or unusuble in a VM, and this will impact the Option-key special characters, since it uses Unicode macro sequences.

A dedicated Unicode processing function was added to keyszer (and inherited by xwaykeyz) that made it possible to bring the Option-key special characters to Linux, where previously I could only add it to the Windows version of Kinto using AutoHotkey.

If you're curious about what characters are available and how to access them, the fully documented lists for each layout are available here:

It's important to understand that your actual keyboard layout will have no effect on the layout used by the Option-key special character scheme. The keymapper generally has no idea what your keyboard layout is, and has a tendency to treat your keyboard as if it is always a US layout. This is a problem that needs a solution. I haven't found even so much as a way to reliably detect the active keyboard layout. So currently Toshy works best with a US layout.

The other problem is that the Unicode entry shortcut only seems to work if you have ibus or fcitx (unconfirmed) set up as your input manager. If not, the special characters (or any other Unicode character sequence) will only work correctly in GTK apps, which seem to have the built-in ability to understand the Shift+Ctrl+U shortcut that invokes Unicode character entry.

There's no simple way around this, since the keymapper is only designed to send key codes from a virtual keyboard. Unlike AutoHotkey in Windows, which can just "send" a character pasted in an AHK script to an application (although there are potential problems with that if the AHK file encoding is wrong).

General improvements over Kinto

This section was moved to a Wiki page to make the README shorter:


  • Linux (no Windows support planned, use Kinto for Windows)

  • Python >=3.6 (to run the setup script)

  • Python >=3.8 (to run the keymapper in its venv)

  • xwaykeyz (keymapper for Linux, forked from keyszer)

    • Automatically installed by Toshy setup script
  • X11/Xorg, or a supported Wayland environment

  • systemd (Optional. You can manually run the config from terminal, shell script, GUI preferences app, or tray indicator menu, so the basic functionality of the Toshy config can work regardless of the init system in use.)

  • D-Bus, and dbus-python (but it is possible to install and run without it)

Several Python modules and their dependencies will be installed in a self-contained venv (Python virtual environment) folder to support the operation of the keymapper and accompanying "apps" like the tray indicator. These modules are listed (for information only) in the requirements.txt file.

A short list of native packages (and their automatic dependencies) will be installed as the first setup stage on each supported distro type, mostly to allow the pip package list to cleanly build and install in the Python venv. But some native packages, like zenity, are critical for additional functionality that would stop working if they were removed.

Specific requirements for certain DEs/WMs

On some Wayland environments it takes extra steps to get the per-app or per-app-group (e.g., "terminals") specific keymapping to work. Special methods need to be used to grab the window context info, and sometimes that means installing something external to Toshy.

  • Wayland+Plasma sessions have a small glitch where you have to change the focused window once after the Toshy KWin script is installed, to get the app-specific remapping to start working. I am trying a solution that uses a pop-up dialog to create a KWin event that "kickstarts" the KWin script. You should briefly see a dialog appear and then disappear shortly after you log in to a Wayland+Plasma session. This has been working well for some time now.

  • Wayland+GNOME sessions require one of the GNOME Shell extensions listed in this section to be installed and enabled (see the next section below on how to easily download and install GNOME Shell extensions):

Managing shell extensions in GNOME

It's very easy to search for and install GNOME Shell extensions now, if you install the "Extension Manager" Flatpak application from Flathub. No need to mess around with downloading a zip file from and manually installing/enabling in the terminal, or trying to get the link between a native package and a browser extension working in a web browser. (Certain browsers and distros often make this a painful process.)

Many distros with GNOME will need the AppIndicator and KStatusNotifierItem extension (or some other extension that enables indicator tray icons) to make the tray icon appear in the top bar, and if you want to use Wayland you'll need one of the extensions from the list above.

Here's how to install "Extension Manager":

flatpak install com.mattjakeman.ExtensionManager

... or just:

flatpak install extensionmanager

If it's not found you may need to enable the Flathub repo on your machine. Go to for instructions for your distro.


The "Extension Manager" Flatpak app is NOT the same thing as the "Extensions" app that sometimes comes pre-installed on GNOME distros. That is a simpler app with no ability to browse the available extensions.

When you get it installed, you can just use the "Browse" tab in this application to search for the extensions by name and quickly install them.

There is no risk of any kind of conflict when installing more than one of the compatible shell extensions. Which might be advisable, to reduce the risk of not having a working extension for a while the next time you upgrade your system in-place and wind up with a newer version of GNOME that one or two of the extensions hasn't been updated to support. I expect at least one of the (now three) extensions will always be updated quickly to support the latest GNOME.

The window context module of the keymapper installed by Toshy will seamlessly jump to trying the other compatible extensions in case one fails or is disabled/uninstalled for any reason. You just need to have at least one from the list installed and enabled, and when it responds over D-Bus to the query from the keymapper it will be marked as the "good" one and used from then on, unless it stops responding. Lather, rinse, repeat.

The Xremap GNOME shell extension is the only one that supports older GNOME versions, so it's the only one that will show up when browsing the extensions list from an environment like Zorin OS 16.x (GNOME 3.38.x) or the distros based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (clones or RHEL compatibles like AlmaLinux, Rocky Linux, Oracle Linux, EuroLinux, etc.) which are still using GNOME 40.x on the 9.x versions.

There is a weird bug with searching for extensions by name sometimes, where you actually have to use the option "Show Unsupported" from the hamburger menu in order to get it to show up. This seems to happen at random, and may be dependent on what is going on with GNOME's extension site. Just make sure that the extension says in its details page that it is compatible with your version of the GNOME shell, and it should be fine to install.

How to Install


DO NOT attempt to manually install Python dependencies with pip using the requirements.txt file. That file only exists to let GitHub show some dependency info. (This may change at some point in the future, but ignore it for now.)


Installer commands and options are now different from early Toshy releases.
CentOS 7 and CentOS Stream 8 users: run ./ first.

  1. Click the big green <> Code ▼ button near the top of the page.
  2. Download the latest zip file from the drop-down. ("Releases" are older.)
  3. Unzip the archive, and open a terminal in the resulting folder.
  4. Run the script in the terminal, like this:
./ install

(See the --options in the next section if the basic install doesn't work.)

If for any reason the script is not executable, you can fix that with this command:

chmod +x

Options for installer script

The installer script has a few different commands and --options available, as shown in this section.

./ --help

Shows a short description of all available commands.

./ install --help

Shows a short description of all available options to modify the install command. The modifier options can be combined.

./ install --override-distro distro_name

This option will force the installer to attempt the install for that distro name/type. You can use this if you have a distro that is not on the distro list yet, but you think it is close enough to one of the existing distros in the list that the installer should do the right things. For instance if you have some very Arch-ish or very Debian-ish distro, or something based on Ubuntu (there are many!) that doesn't identify as one of the "known" distros when you use show-env and list-distros (see below), then you can try to make it install using one of the related distro names. This will probably work, if the distro is just a minor variation of its parent distro.

./ install --barebones-config

This special option will install a "barebones" config file that does no modmapping or keymapping by default (besides a simple example keymap that gives access to a couple of currency symbols, as a demo). The option will also convert an existing Toshy config into a "barebones" config file, but will ask for explicit confirmation. This config will of course not provide any of the features that a normal Toshy config would, other than the ability to use the keymapper in any of the compatible environments.

The Toshy installer should try to retain your changes inside any of the editable "slices" of the barebones config file, and avoid replacing your barebones config with a regular Toshy config file, even if you don't use the same CLI option the next time you run the installer. Submit an issue if it doesn't respect your barebones config. Even if that happens, the previous config file should be in the timestamped backup folder that the installer always creates.

./ install --skip-native

This is primarily a convenient debug/development option. It just bypasses the attempt to install any native package list.

In theory, you could use this option to get Toshy working on a new distro type that is not currently supported. You could take one of the existing package lists (found inside the installer script file) from a distro type that is closely related to your distro, and try to manually install packages after using this --skip-native option, and the --override-distro option to provide the installer a "known" distro name. There will of course be errors, particularly during the process of installing/building the Python packages that get installed in the virtual environment folder via the pip command. Then you would search the web for what kind of package might fix that error, and try again, with the same options. There will often also be errors to overcome after the install is finished, when trying to launch the tray and GUI apps. Using the toshy-tray and toshy-gui commands in the terminal will display the errors that prevent those apps from launching or working correctly.

If you go through this process I hope you'll keep track of exactly what packages you ended up needing to install, and take the time to submit an issue with the package list, distro details, and the native package command(s) you needed to use, so support for the the distro type can be added to the installer.

One pitfall that is hard to avoid in this process is installing packages that don't actually solve any issue, and then not removing them to verify whether they are truly dependencies. Be careful about that.

Avoiding package layering on Fedora atomic/immutable distros

I've also recently found the --skip-native option to be useful on Fedora atomic/immutable distros, after running the installer initially inside a distrobox Fedora container (same version as the host). This is potentially a way to get Toshy's venv working without needing to use package layering on the host immutable. But the process of installing inside the container would probably need to be repeated any time the packages downloaded with pip change versions, because that process relies on some native packages to complete the build/caching step.

Last, but definitely not least, the "extra" install option:

./ install --fancy-pants

This will do the full install, but also add various things that I find convenient, fun, or that somehow make the desktop environment behave more sensibly, which often means "more like macOS". (Note: For some reason KDE on stock Debian 12 doesn't have the "Large Icons" task switcher installed, so you have to fix the task switcher in the Task Switcher control panel after using this option.)

At the moment this installer option will do the following:

  • ALL: Installs "Fantasque Sans Mono noLig" font
    • From a fork with no coding ligatures
    • LargeLineHeight-NoLoopK variant
    • Try it in terminals or code editors
    • May look a bit "heavy" on KDE due to forced "stem darkening" in Qt apps
  • KDE: Installs "Application Switcher" KWin script (groups apps like macOS/GNOME)
  • KDE: Disables task switcher option "Show selected window"
  • KDE: Sets the task switcher to "Large Icons" (like macOS/GNOME task switcher)
  • KDE: Enables task switcher option "Only one window per application" (makes the task switcher dialog show only a single icon for each application, like macOS/GNOME)

Note that any or all of the "--options" for the install command can be combined, as they modify independent aspects of what the install command will do:

./ install --override-distro distro-name --skip-native --barebones-config --fancy-pants

Here are some other things besides installing that the setup script can do. These commands are mutually exclusive, just like the install command.

./ list-distros

This command will print out a list of the distros that the Toshy installer theoretically "knows" how to deal with, as far as knowing the correct package manager to use and having a list of package names that would actually work. Entries from the displayed distro list can be used with the --override-distro option for the install command.

./ show-env

This will just show what the installer will see as the environment when you try to install, but won't actually run the full install process.

./ apply-tweaks

Just applies the "desktop tweaks" for the environment, does not do the full install. Might be handy if you have a system with multiple desktop environments.

./ remove-tweaks

Just removes the "desktop tweaks" the installer applied. Does not do the full uninstall.

./ prep-only

This will only perform the necessary steps to "prep" the system to make Toshy's user-specific components work correctly. Things like package installs and setting up the udev rules file. This prep-only command will avoid installing any of Toshy's user components (user services, tray icon, etc.) for the admin user running the command.

Invoking this command instead of doing the "install" command may require some extra manual steps to get a user's Toshy install fully working, if the user that wants to use Toshy is a non-admin (unprivileged) user with no access to sudo. Mainly this might be adding the unprivileged user to the correct input group and restarting the system. See the dedicated Wiki page for more information about the use of the prep-only command.

How to Uninstall

This should work now:

./ uninstall

Please file an issue if you have some sort of trouble with the uninstall command. If you have a multi-desktop system you may need to run the uninstall procedure while logged into KDE if you ran the installer in KDE, due to the KDE-specific components that get installed for Wayland support.

Currently working/tested Linux distros:

Detailed info on supported Linux distros has been moved into a Wiki article to make the README shorter. Check for notes on your specific distro or distro type if you haven't installed Toshy before. If you aren't using a distro type found on the list, it's extremely unlikely that the Toshy installer will work, even with the --override_distro option. The components in Toshy's Python virtual environment are supported by a list of native packages that must first be in place.

You will find these distro groupings in the Wiki article:

Currently working desktop environments or window managers

  • X11/Xorg sessions

    • Any desktop environment should work
  • Wayland sessions

    • Cinnamon 6.0 or later - [uses custom shell extension]
    • GNOME 3.38 or later - [needs shell extension, see Requirements]
    • Hyprland - [currently uses hyprpy Python module]
    • Plasma 5 (KDE) - [uses custom KWin script]
    • Plasma 6 (KDE) - [uses custom KWin script]
    • Sway - [currently uses ipc Python module]

If you are in an X11/Xorg login session, the desktop environment or window manager doesn't really matter. The keymapper gets the window class/name/title information directly from the X server with the Python Xlib module.

On the other hand, if you are in a Wayland session, it is only possible to obtain the per-application or per-window information (for the app-specific shortcut keymaps) by using solutions that are custom to a limited set of desktop environments (or window managers).

For Wayland+GNOME this requires at least one of the known compatible GNOME Shell extensions to be installed and enabled. See above in Requirements. I do not maintain the GNOME shell extensions, and they frequently need to be updated for new GNOME releases.

There are specific remaps or overrides of default remaps for several common desktop environments (or distros which have shortcut peculiarities in their default desktop setups). They become active if the desktop environment is detected correctly by the environment evaluation module used by the config file. If that isn't working for some reason, the information about the desktop environment can be placed in some OVERRIDE variables in the config file. But open an issue if that seems to be necessary.

Tiling window managers may need some adjustments. The example issue at the link is for i3 WM, with the physical Meta/Super/Win key chosen as the Mod key in i3 config, on a PC keyboard type. Other WMs or other configuration choices will need modifications of the solution shown.

Usage (changing preferences)

See next section for usage of the Toshy terminal commands to manage the services and keymapper process. This section is about the preferences available via the tray icon menu, or the GUI "Toshy Preferences" app.

The tray icon menu has a few more convenient features that aren't entirely mirrored in the simple GUI app window.


Note that changing the items in the submenus from the tray icon menu or the GUI app will cause the behavior of the keymapper config to change immediately (or within a couple of seconds), without requiring the keymapper process/services to be restarted. You only need to restart the services after editing the config file itself. Preferences are taken care of in memory, and the current state is stored in a small sqlite3 file (which gets preserved if you re-run the Toshy installer). Once you tweak a preference it should stay that way even if you reinstall.

In the tray icon menu, you'll find a number of useful functions:

  • Top items show services status (not clickable)
  • Toggle to disable/enable autostart of services
  • Items to (re)start or stop the services
  • Items to (re)start or stop just the config script
  • Preferences submenu
  • OptSpect Layout submenu
  • Keyboard Type submenu
  • Item to open the GUI app
  • Item to open the Toshy config folder
  • Item to show the services log (journal)
  • Items to disable or remove the tray icon

Why there are separate items for "services" and "script"

On some distros there may be some reason the systemd services can't run, or you simply don't want them to be enabled. For instance, CentOS 7 supports systemd services in general, but had the capacity for "user" services completely disabled, and Toshy uses "user" services. Some distros also don't use systemd at all as the init system, so the services won't exist. For these cases, the "Script" items provide a simple way to start just the keymapper config process, if you don't feel like setting up your own auto-start item that will run the toshy-config-start command. The lack of systemd and loginctl will mean that Toshy won't have the multi-user support that will otherwise be present. Not a big deal on a single-user system.

Preferences submenu

Here are the preferences that are currently available:

  • Alt_Gr on Right Cmd
  • CapsLock is Cmd
  • CapsLock is Esc & Cmd
  • Enter is Ent & Cmd
  • Sublime3 in VSCode
  • Forced Numpad
  • Media Arrows Fix

And what each of these preferences do:

Alt_Gr on Right Cmd - International keyboard users will need to enable this to get to the additional ISO level 3 characters that they would normally reach by using the Alt_Gr key on the right side of the Space bar. Otherwise the Toshy config will turn that key into another Command key equivalent, like the key on the left side of the space bar. Note that this only fixes one aspect of the issues that non-US layout users may have with the keymapper.

CapsLock is Cmd - Turns the CapsLock key into an additional Command key equivalent.

CapsLock is Esc & Cmd - Turns the CapsLock key into a multi-purpose key. Escape if tapped, Command if held and combined with another key. (This can be easily modified to make the key Esc & Ctrl instead.)

Enter is Ent & Cmd - Turns the Enter key into a multi-purpose key. Enter if tapped, Command if held and combined with another key.

Sublime3 in VSCode - Enables Sublime 3 keyboard shortcut variations in VSCode variants, instead of native VSCode shortcuts.

Forced Numpad - Enabled by default, this causes a PC keyboard's numeric keypad to simulate how a full-sized Apple keyboard behaves in macOS, where the keypad always acts like a numeric keypad. If you need the navigation functions, this can be disabled from the tray icon menu or GUI app, or with Option+NumLock (Fn+Clear also works on an Apple keyboard). The "Clear" key on an Apple keyboard is actually a NumLock key.

Media Arrows Fix - If you have a laptop like mine where they put "media" functions (PlayPause/Stop/Rew/Fwd) on the arrow/cursor keys (when holding the Fn key), this preference option will "fix" them by letting the arrow keys behave like the arrow keys on a MacBook instead. They will be PgUp/PgDn/Home/End when holding the Fn key, and as long as the Fn key is included you can use them in keyboard shortcuts like Fn+Shift+PgDn (to select a page of text below the cursor, for example).

OptSpec Layout submenu

The OptSpec Layout submenu in the tray icon (or the radio buttons in the GUI app) shows which hard-coded Option-key special character layout is currently enabled in the Toshy config. Toggling one of the other items should almost immediately cause the layout to change or be disabled if desired.

Keyboard Type submenu

This submenu is a sort of temporary hack to force all attached keyboard devices to be seen as a specific type, which disables on-the-fly auto-adaptation, in case your keyboard type is being misidentified. You will receive a notification warning that this is only meant as a temporary fix while you follow the instructions to get the config file to correctly identify your keyboard type. If you restart Toshy, the setting will not be saved.

The main reason you'd need to use this is when a keyboard that is not made by Apple either was made for use with macOS, or just has the modifier keys next to the Space bar swapped like an Apple keyboard (common in small keyboards made to work with multiple devices including iOS/iPadOS devices), so you need to force it to be treated like an Apple keyboard. These types of keyboards can't be easily identified as the correct type by just looking at the device name.

After verifying that the forced keyboard type puts the modifiers in the correct place to work with muscle memory from using an Apple keyboard with macOS, you'll want to fix this permanently by opening your config file and editing the custom dictionary item to make the config see your device name as the correct type. See here for more information.

Usage (terminal commands)

See above section for the GUI tools and preferences explanations. This section is only about the Toshy terminal commands.

Toshy does its best to set itself up automatically on any Linux system that uses systemd and that is a "known" Linux distro type that the installer knows how to deal with (i.e., has a list of the correct native packages to install, and knows how to use the package manager). Generally this means distros that use any of these package managers:

  • apt
  • dnf
  • eopkg
  • pacman
  • rpm-ostree
  • transactional-update
  • xbps-install
  • zypper

If the install was successful, there should be a number of different terminal commands available to check the status of the Toshy systemd user services (the services are not system-wide, in an attempt to support multi-user setups and support Wayland environments more easily) and stop/start/restart the services.

Toshy actually consists of two separate systemd services meant to work together, with one monitoring the other, so the shell commands are meant to make working with the paired services much easier.

(There is now a third service, but it is only active in a Wayland+Plasma environment, creating a D-Bus service to receive updates from the KWin script with the necessary window info.)

The commands are copied into ~/.local/bin, and you will be prompted to add that location to your shell's PATH if it is not present. Depends on the distro whether that location is already set up as part of the path or not.

If you change your shell or reset your RC file and need to fix the path, an easy way to do that is to run this script that re-installs the terminal commands in the same way they were initially installed:


These are the main commands for managing and checking the services:

toshy-services-log      (shows journalctl output for Toshy services)
toshy-services-status   (shows the current state of all Toshy services)

To disable/enable the Toshy services (to prevent or restore autostart at login), use the commands below. It should still be possible to start/restart the services with the commands above if they are disabled. Using the "enable" command in turn will not automatically start the services immediately if they are not running (but the services will then autostart at the next login). If the services are enabled they can be stopped at any time with the command above, but the enabled services will start automatically at the next login. (NEW: This can finally also be dealt with in the tray icon menu, by toggling the Autostart Toshy Services item near the top of the menu.)

toshy-services-disable  (services can still be started/stopped manually)
toshy-services-enable   (does not auto-start the service until next login)

If you'd like to completely uninstall or re-install the Toshy services, use the commands below. These are the same commands used by the Toshy installer to set up the services.

toshy-systemd-remove    (stops and removes the systemd service units)
toshy-systemd-setup     (installs and starts the systemd service units)

The following commands are also available, and meant to allow manually running just the Toshy config file, without any reliance on systemd. These will automatically stop the systemd services so there is no conflict, for instance if you need to run the verbose version of the command to debug a shortcut that is not working as expected, or find out how you broke the config file.

Restarting the Toshy services, either with one of the above commands or from the GUI preferences app or tray icon menu, will stop any manual config process and return to running the Toshy config as a systemd service. All the commands are designed to work together as conveniently as possible.

toshy-config-start-verbose  (show debugging output in the terminal)
toshy-config-verbose-start  (alias of 'toshy-config-start-verbose')

And a command that will show what Toshy sees as the environment when you launch the config. This may be helpful when troubleshooting or making reports:


For changing the function keys mode of a keyboard device that uses the hid_apple device driver/kernel module, use this command:

toshy-fnmode                    (interactive prompts mode)
toshy-fnmode --help             (show usage/options)
toshy-fnmode --info             (show current status of fnmode)
toshy-fnmode [--option] [mode]  (change fnmode non-interactively)

To activate the Toshy Python virtual environment for doing things like running the keymapper directly, it is necessary to run this command:

source toshy-venv

There are also some desktop apps that will be found in most Linux app launchers (like "Albert" or "Ulauncher") or application menus in Linux desktop environments:

  • Toshy Preferences
  • Toshy Tray Icon

You may find them under a "Utilities" folder in some application menus (such as the IceWM menu). Or possibly under "Accessories" (LXDE menu).

Both of these apps will show the current status of the systemd services, and allow the immediate changing of the exposed optional features, as well as stopping or restarting the Toshy services. The tray icon menu also allows opening the Preferences app, and opening the ~/.config/toshy folder if you need to edit the config file.

If the desktop apps aren't working for some reason, it may be useful to try to launch them from a terminal and see if they have any error output:


FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

FAQ section has been moved to a Wiki page to make the README shorter:

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Thanks for checking out Toshy!