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Songle Chen, Lintao Zheng, Yan Zhang, Zhixin Sun, Kai Xu*


This code is a Torch implementation of VERAM, a recurrent attention model capable of actively selecting a sequence of views for highly accurate 3D shape classification. VERAM addresses an important issue commonly found in existing attention-based models, i.e., the unbalanced training of the subnetworks corresponding to next view estimation and shape classification. Details of the work can be found here.


If you find our work useful in your research, please consider citing:

    author={S. Chen and L. Zheng and Y. Zhang and Z. Sun and K. Xu}, 
    journal={IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics}, 
    title={VERAM: View-Enhanced Recurrent Attention Model for 3D Shape Classification}, 


  1. This code is written in lua and requires Torch. You should setup torch environment.

  2. if you'd like to train on GPU/CUDA, you have to get the cutorch and cunn packages:

    $ luarocks install cutorch	
    $ luarocks install cunn
  1. Install other torch packages (nn, dpnn, rnn, image, etc.): $ ./scripts/



To Train and test a VERAM model, 3 data files need to be prepared according to the instruction in folder 'AlexNetFC6Extract', namely:

    (1) The visual features for each view of shapes in the training set
    (2) The visual features for each view of shapes in the testing set
    (3) The confidence for each view of shapes in the training set

The format of the data is hdf5 and each shape category is saved in the dataset 'data\i', i is the category index. The data structure is 'number of shapes in this category'x12x12x4096, and the data is loaded by imageset2DwithConf.lua.

We have provided the training and testing data of ModelNet10, ModelNet40 in folder 'data', they can be used directly.


To train a VERAM model to classify 3D shapes in ModelNet10 or ModelNet40, please download data files according to the instruction in folder 'data', and then run:

  (1) $ th ModelNet10AlexTrain.lua 
  (2) $ th ModelNet10AlexTrain.lua


The trained VERAM models with 3, 6, 9 views respectively can be downloaded according to the instruction in folder 'model'. To evaluate the trained model, just run the lua files in folder 'evaluation', for example:

    $ th evaluateModelNet40-AlexNet-9Views-0.937196InstanceLevelAccuracy.lua 

You can see the details of the classification result, including the predicated category with it's probability for each shape, the total number, correctly classified number and accuracy of each category.


Taking rendered grayscale image as input and AlexNet as CNN architecture, without applying any data augmentation or network ensemble strategy, the classification results VERAM achieved on the testing data of ModelNet40 are listed below.

Accuracy 3 views 6 views 9 views
instance-level 92.3825% 93.3144% 93.7196%
class-level 90.8087% 91.6291% 92.1244%


Torch implementation in this repository is based on the code from Nicholas Leonard's recurrent model of visual attention, which is a clean and nice GitHub repo using Torch.


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