MaybeDont is a library that helps avoid downloading pages with duplicate content during crawling. It learns which URL components are important and which are not important during crawling, and tries to predict if the page will be duplicate based on it's URL.
The idea is that if you have a crawler that just
follows all links, it might download a lot of duplicate pages: for example,
for a forum there might be pages like
/view.php?topicId=10&start=0 - the only difference is added
and the content of this pages is likely duplicate. If we knew that adding
start=0 does not change content, then we would avoid downloading the page
/view.php?topicId=10&start=0 if we have already fetched
/view.php?topicId=10, and thus save time and bandwidth.
maybedont.DupePredictor collects statistics about page URLs and contents, and
is able to predict if the new URL will bring any new content.
First, initialize a
from maybedont import DupePredictor dp = DupePredictor( texts_sample=[page_1, page_2, page_3], jaccard_threshold=0.9) # default value
texts_sample is a list of page contents. It can be ommited, but it is
recommended to provide it: it is used to learn which parts of the page are
common for a lot of site's pages, and excludes this parts from duplicate
comparison. This helps with pages where the content is small relative to
the site chrome (footer, header, etc.): without removing chrome all such
pages would be considered duplicates, as only a tiny fraction of the content
Next, we can update
DupePredictor model with downloaded pages:
dp.update_model(url_4, text_4) dp.update_model(url_5, text_5)
After a while,
DupePredictor will learn which arguments in URLs
are important, and which can be safely ignored.
DupePredictor.get_dupe_prob returns the probability of url being
a duplicate of some content that has already been seem:
Runtime overhead should be not too large: on a crawl with < 100k pages, expected time to update the model is 1-5 ms, and below 1 ms to get the probability. All visited urls and hashes of content are stored in memory, along with some indexing structures.
pip install MaybeDont
If you have a Scrapy spider,
or are looking for an inspiration for a spider
middleware, check out
First, it collects an queue of documents to know better which page elements
are common on the site, in order to exclude them from content comparison.
After that it builds it's
DupePredictor, updates it with crawled pages
(only textual pages are taken into account), and starts dropping requests
for duplicate content once it gets confident enough. Not all requests for
duplicates are dropped: with a small probability (currenty 5%) requests
are carried anyway. This makes duplicate detection more robust against
changes in site URL or content structure as the crawl progresses.
To enable the middleware, the following settings are required:
AVOID_DUP_CONTENT_ENABLED = True DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES['maybedont.scrapy_middleware.AvoidDupContentMiddleware'] = 200
Middleware is only applied to requests with
AVOID_DUP_CONTENT_THRESHOLD = 0.98- minimal probability when requests are skipped.
AVOID_DUP_CONTENT_EXPLORATION = 0.05- probability of still making a request that should be dropped
AVOID_DUP_CONTENT_INITIAL_QUEUE_LIMIT = 300- number of pages that should be downloaded before DupePredictor is initialized
Duplicate detection is based on
MinHashLSH from the
datasketch library. Text
4-shingles of words are used for hashing,
not spanning line breaks in the extracted text.
Several hypotheses about duplicates are tested:
- All URLs with a given URL path are the same (have the same content), regardless of query parameters;
- All URLs which only differ in a given URL query parameter are the same (e.g. session tokens can be detected this way);
- All URLs which have a given path and only differ in a given URL query parameter are the same;
- All URLs which have a given path and query string and only differ in a single given query parameter are the same;
- URLs are the same if they have same path and only differ in that some of them have a given param=value query argument added;
- URLs are the same if they have a given path and only differ in a given param=value query argument;
Bernoulli distribution is fit for each hypothesis.
License is MIT