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README.md

Release

Introduction

Release is a multi-process Lwt-enabled daemon framework for OCaml, providing facilities for type-safe inter-process communication and privilege-dropping.

Its goal is to make it easy to write servers that are released from the calling terminal and to release root privileges when those are not necessary.

In this documentation, any mention of a "thread" refers to an Lwt.t.

All quotes are from the Pearl Jam song Release - Master/Slave :)

Build and installation

After cloning the repository, run the commands below to build Release.

$ ocaml setup.ml -configure
$ ocaml setup.ml -build

Documentation can be generated with the command below.

$ ocaml setup.ml -doc

To install Release, run

# ocaml setup.ml -install

Forking daemons

Oh dear dad Can you see me now I am myself Like you somehow

The simplest way to use the library is to simply daemonize a process. Release provides an Lwt-enabled function to do this in the Release module.

val daemon : (unit -> unit Lwt.t) -> unit Lwt.t

Upon calling Release.daemon f, the usual steps to create a daemon process will be executed.

  1. The umask will be set to 0;
  2. fork will be called;
  3. The parent process exits;
  4. The child process calls setsid, ignores the SIGHUP and SIGPIPE signals, calls fork again and exits.
  5. The grandchild process changes the working directory to /, redirects stdin, stdout and stderr to /dev/null and finally calls f.

Master/slave processes

A common pattern when writing multi-process servers is to have a master process and n slave processes. Usually the master process runs as a privileged user, while the slaves run unprivileged. This allows one to design a server such that the bulk of the code runs as a normal user in a slave process, and a minimum amount of code that actually requires root privileges is implemented in the master process. Thus, in case of a bug, the likelihood that it can be exploited with root escalation is considerably decreased.

Consider the type of an inter-process communication callback function, defined as Release_ipc.handler:

type handler = (Lwt_unix.file_descr -> unit Lwt.t)

The simple case of a master process and one slave process is implemented in the function Release.master_slave.

val master_slave :
     slave:(Lwt_io.file_name * Release_ipc.handler)
  -> ?background:bool
  -> ?syslog:bool
  -> ?privileged:bool
  -> ?slave_env:[`Inherit | `Keep of string list]
  -> ?control:(Lwt_io.file_name * Release_ipc.handler)
  -> ?main:((unit -> (int * Lwt_unix.file_descr) list) -> unit Lwt.t)
  -> lock_file:Lwt_io.file_name
  -> unit -> unit

The slave argument is a tuple whose first argument is the path to the slave process executable. The second argument is a callback function that is used by the master to handle inter-process communication with the slave. This function receives the file descriptor to be used as a communication channel with the slave process. More details about slave processes and IPC in Release will be described in more details below.

The background argument indicates whether Release.daemon will be called. The syslog argument indicates if the syslog facilities from the Lwt_log module will be enabled. If the master process is supposed to run as root, then the privileged argument must be set to true. The slave process environment variables can be controlled by the slave_env argument; they can be inherited from the master process, or filtered via a whitelist of variable names. By default, only the OCAMLRUNPARAM environment variable is passed to slave processes.

The master_slave function will create a lock file in the path given in the lock_file argument. This file will contain the PID of the master process. If the lock file already exists and contains the PID of a running process, the master process will refuse to start.

The control argument consists of a tuple specifying the path to a Unix socket and a callback function. The master process will create and listen on this socket on startup. This is useful for the implementation of control programs that communicate with the master process.

If given, the main callback function argument will be called with a function that returns a list of PID and file descriptors pairs corresponding to the currently running slave processes and the IPC sockets that can be used by the master process for communication. This list can be useful to implement broadcast-style messaging from the master to the slaves.

The general case of n slave processes is handled by the function Release.master_slaves.

val master_slaves :
     ?background:bool
  -> ?syslog:bool
  -> ?privileged:bool
  -> ?slave_env:string list
  -> ?control:(Lwt_io.file_name * Release_ipc.handler)
  -> ?main:((unit -> (int * Lwt_unix.file_descr) list) -> unit Lwt.t)
  -> lock_file:Lwt_io.file_name
  -> slaves:(Lwt_io.file_name * Release_ipc.handler * int) list
  -> unit -> unit

This function generalizes Release.master_slave, allowing the creation of heterogeneous groups of slave process via the slaves argument. This argument is a list of 3-element tuples containing the path to the slave executables, the IPC callback function and the number of processes that will be created for the given executable.

Slaves

I'll ride the wave Where it takes me I'll hold the pain Release me

When a slave process is run, some code must be run in order to setup communication with the master, and also to drop privileges to a non-root user. The Release.me function deals with this:

val me : ?syslog:bool
      -> ?user:string
      -> main:(Lwt_unix.file_descr -> unit Lwt.t)
      -> unit -> unit

The syslog argument works like in master_slave. The user argument, if given, indicates the user whose UID and GID the slave process will set its own IDs to. This argument can only be given is privileged is true in the master process.

The main argument is a function that returns the slave's main thread. It accepts a file descriptor for communication with the master process.

Inter-process communication

I'll wait up in the dark For you to speak to me

Inter-process communication in Release is handled in a type-safe manner in the module Release_ipc.

The Release_ipc.Make functor receives as an argument a module with the following signature.

module type Ops = sig
  type request
  type response

  val string_of_request : request -> string
  val request_of_string : string -> request

  val string_of_response : response -> string
  val response_of_string : string -> response
end

The types request and response correspond to the respective IPC operations, and the convertion functions of requests and responses to and from strings must be provided.

The output of Release_ipc.Make is a module with the signature below.

module type S = sig
  type request
  type response

  val read : ?timeout:float
          -> Lwt_unix.file_descr
          -> [`Data of Release_buffer.t | `EOF | `Timeout] Lwt.t

  val write : Lwt_unix.file_descr -> Release_buffer.t -> unit Lwt.t

  val read_request : ?timeout:float
                  -> Lwt_unix.file_descr
                  -> [`Request of request | `EOF | `Timeout] Lwt.t

  val read_response : ?timeout:float
                   -> Lwt_unix.file_descr
                   -> [`Response of response | `EOF | `Timeout] Lwt.t

  val write_request : Lwt_unix.file_descr -> request -> unit Lwt.t

  val write_response : Lwt_unix.file_descr -> response -> unit Lwt.t

  val make_request : ?timeout:float
                  -> Lwt_unix.file_descr
                  -> request
                  -> ([`Response of response | `EOF | `Timeout] -> 'a Lwt.t)
                  -> 'a Lwt.t

  val handle_request : ?timeout:float
                    -> ?eof_warning:bool
                    -> Lwt_unix.file_descr
                    -> (request -> response Lwt.t)
                    -> unit Lwt.t
end

The functions read and write will perform these operations on the IPC file descriptor given as an argument, and operate on buffers.

The read_{request,response} and write_{request,response} work similarly, but are higher-level, and operate on the request and response types, doing the buffer conversion implicitly.

The functions make_request and handle_request are IPC helpers wrapping read and write. A slave process can call make_request fd req handler to make an IPC request to the master process and wait for a response, which will be passed as an argument to the handler callback. The master process can call handle_request fd handler to wait for an IPC request from a slave. This request will be passed to the callback function, which must return a response that will be written back to the slave.

Control sockets

It may be useful for slaves to have control sockets like the one available to the master process. This can be useful for writing control programs or for communication between slave processes. The Release_ipc module provides the control_socket function to help setting up the socket and spawning a handler thread.

val control_socket : Lwt_io.file_name -> Release_ipc.handler -> unit Lwt.t

The IPC protocol

Release uses a very simple IPC protocol. This information is not necessary for writing applications using this library, but it is useful for creating control programs or scripts in languages other than OCaml, which can't use Release (see the control argument described above).

Every Release IPC message consists of a 4-byte field containing the length of the payload portion of the message and a payload field of variable length. Thus, a message containing the payload string "hello" will have the length field set to 5 (the length of the string) and the payload field will be the string itself.

Higher-level protocols are left for the library users to implement according to the needs of their respective applications.

Extras

The Release_buffer module

Release_buffer is provided in a separate, release.buffer, but it is loaded by default when Release is used.

This module provides a buffer whose implementation is based on OCaml's Bigarray type to minimize data copying. It is used by Release in its I/O functions.

Please check the ocamldoc documentation for the module interface.

The Release_io module

This module exports utility I/O functions that are useful when dealing with network I/O.

The functions in this module are based on the Release_buffer.t type, which has already appeared in some function signatures in the IPC module. This buffer is a wrapper around the Lwt_bytes.t type, which in turn uses OCaml's Bigarray module to minimize data-copying. See the Release_buffer module documentation for the list of available buffer-related functions.

The first function in the module is Release_io.read_once. It has similar semantics to the usual Unix.read, but works on Release_buffer.t.

val read_once : Lwt_unix.file_descr
             -> Release_buffer.t
             -> int
             -> int
             -> int Lwt.t

Calling Release_io.read_once fd buf off n will read at most n bytes from fd and store them into buf starting at offset off. This function is safe against temporary errors, retrying on Unix.EINTR and Unix.EAGAIN automatically.

The second function is Release_io.read, which has the following signature.

val read : ?timeout:float
        -> Lwt_unix.file_descr
        -> int
        -> [`Data of Release_buffer.t | `EOF | `Timeout] Lwt.t

Calling Release_io.read fd n will try to read at most n bytes from fd, returning the appropriate result. Like Release_io.read_once, this function is safe against temporary errors.

The third function is Release_io.write.

val write : Lwt_unix.file_descr -> Release_buffer.t -> unit Lwt.t

Calling Release_io.write fd buf will ensure that the full length of buffer buff is written on file descriptor fd. This function is also safe against Unix.EINTR and Unix.EAGAIN.

The Release_socket module

This module contains utility socket functions. Currently the only exported function is Release_socket.accept_loop.

val accept_loop : ?backlog:int
               -> ?timeout:float
               -> Lwt_unix.socket_type
               -> Lwt_unix.sockaddr
               -> (Lwt_unix.file_descr -> unit Lwt.t)
               -> unit Lwt.t

This function implements a traditional accept loop, spawning one thread per client connection. The function creates a socket of the specified type, binds it to the given address and listens for client connections. When a new connection is accepted, the callback function given as the last argument is executed in a separate thread (which may be interrupted depending on the timeout argument), while accept_loop goes back to wait for new connections.

Release sub-packages

The Release_bytes module

When writing network-based daemons, the need to implement some kind of binary protocol is very common. Very often, these protocols have numeric fields that must be read or written by the application. Since the network I/O functions take buffers as arguments, the need to perform integer reads writes from and into buffers, respectively, is quite frequent.

The Release library offers the Release_bytes module to help in such conversions. This module contains a set of functions that take a buffer as an argument and read or write integers of various sizes at a given offset on the buffer. The functions that read and write single bytes are available directly Release_bytes, while functions for integers of other sizes can be accessed from the modules Release_bytes.Big_endian and Release_bytes.Little_endian.

The functions available in Release_bytes, with their respective signatures, are listed below.

  • val read_byte_at : int -> Release_buffer.t -> int
  • val read_byte : Release_buffer.t -> int
  • val write_byte : int -> Buffer.t -> unit

The following functions are available in both Release_bytes.Little_endian and Release_bytes.Little_endian.

  • val read_int16_at : int -> Release_buffer.t -> int
  • val read_int16 : Release_buffer.t -> int
  • val write_int16_byte : int -> Buffer.t -> unit
  • val write_int16 : int -> Buffer.t -> unit

  • val read_int_at : int -> Release_buffer.t -> int

  • val read_int : Release_buffer.t -> int
  • val write_int_byte : int -> Buffer.t -> unit
  • val write_int : int -> Buffer.t -> unit

  • val read_int32_at : int -> Release_buffer.t -> int32

  • val read_int32 : Release_buffer.t -> int32
  • val write_int32_byte : int32 -> Buffer.t -> unit
  • val write_int32 : int32 -> Buffer.t -> unit

  • val read_uint32_at : int -> Release_buffer.t -> Uint32.t

  • val read_uint32 : Release_buffer.t -> Uint32.t
  • val write_uint32_byte : Uint32.t -> Buffer.t -> unit
  • val write_uint32 : Uint32.t -> Buffer.t -> unit

  • val read_int64_at : int -> Release_buffer.t -> int64

  • val read_int64 : Release_buffer.t -> int64
  • val write_int64_byte : int64 -> Buffer.t -> unit
  • val write_int64 : int64 -> Buffer.t -> unit

  • val read_uint64_at : int -> Release_buffer.t -> Uint64.t

  • val read_uint64 : Release_buffer.t -> Uint64.t
  • val write_uint64_byte : Uint64.t -> Buffer.t -> unit
  • val write_uint64 : Uint64.t -> Buffer.t -> unit

  • val read_uint128_at : int -> Release_buffer.t -> Uint128.t

  • val read_uint128 : Release_buffer.t -> Uint128.t
  • val write_uint128_byte : Uint128.t -> Buffer.t -> unit
  • val write_uint128 : Uint128.t -> Buffer.t -> unit

The Release_config module

This module provides an interface to help dealing with configuration files in Release applications. A Release configuration file uses a simple key = value format with support for sections, similar to .ini configuration files.

Release_config values can be integers, floats, strings, booleans, regular expressions, log levels or lists containing one of those types. Configuration files are validated against a specification provided by the application, which states the default value, if any, and a list of validations for each configuration directive.

The Release_config_values module provides some helpers for setting default values in configuration specifications:

  • default_bool
  • default_int
  • default_float
  • default_string
  • default_regexp
  • default_log_level
  • default_bool_list
  • default_int_list
  • default_float_list
  • default_string_list

The Release_config_validations provides helpers for specifying validation lists in a configuration:

  • bool: the value is a boolean
  • int: the value is an integer
  • float: the value is a float
  • string: the value is a string
  • regexp: the value is a regular expression
  • log_level: the value is a log level
  • bool_list: the value is a list of booleans
  • int_list: the value is a list of integers
  • float_list: the value is a list of floats
  • string_list: the value is a list of strings
  • int_in_range: the value is an integer in the given inclusive range
  • int_greater_than: the value is greater than the given integer
  • int_less_than: the value is less than the given integer
  • float_in_range: the value is a float in the given range
  • float_greater_than: the value is greater than the given float
  • float_less_than: the value is less than the given float
  • string_matching: the value matches a regexp built from the given string
  • int_in: the value is one of the integers in the given list
  • string_in: the value is one of the strings in the given list
  • existing_file: the value is an existing file
  • nonempty_file: the value is a non-empty file
  • file_with_mode: the value is a file with the given mode
  • file_with_owner: the value is a file with the given owner
  • file_with_group: the value is a file with the given group
  • existing_directory: the value is an existing directory
  • existing_dirname: the values's directory name of exists
  • block_device: the value is a block device
  • character_device: the value is a character device
  • symbolic_link: the value is a symbolic link
  • named_pipe: the value is a named pipe
  • unix_socket: the value is a socket
  • existing_user: the value is an existing user
  • unprivileged_user: the value is a non-root user
  • existing_group: the value is an existing group
  • list_of: the value is a list of values passing the given validation

Please refer to the ocamldoc documentation for the types of the above helpers.

Configuration specifications are values of type Release_config.spec, constructed as below.

type value =
  [ `Int of int
  | `Float of float
  | `Bool of bool
  | `Str of string
  | `Regexp of Str.regexp
  | `Log_level of Lwt_log.level
  | `List of (value list)
  ]

type validation = value -> [`Valid | `Invalid of string]

type key = string * value option * validation list

type section =
  [ `Global of key list
  | `Section of (string * key list)
  ]

type spec = section list

Below is an example of a configuration specification and its respective configuration file.

open Release_config_values
open Release_config_validations

let spec =
  [ `Global (* Settings which don't belong to any section *)
      [ "user", None (* required parameter *), [unprivileged_user]
      ; "privileged", default_bool true, [bool]
      ; "read_timeout", default_int 5, int_in_range (0, 10)
      ; "log_level", default_log_level notice, [log_level]
      ]
  ; `Section ("some-section",
      [ "match_with", default_regexp /^[a-z]+$/, [regexp]
      ; "tmp", default_string "/tmp", one_of_strings ["/tmp"; "/var/tmp"]
      ])
  ; `Section ("another-section",
      [ "privileged_users", default_string_list ["root"], [list_of existing_user]
      ])
  ]

With the specification above, every parameter can be ommited, with the exception of the first global directive, which has no default value and therefore must be present in the file.

Below is a possible configuration file that matches the above specification.

# Global settings
user         = "foo"  # string
privileged   = false  # boolean
read_timeout = 1      # integer
log_level    = debug  # log_level

[some-section]  # section declaration
match_with  = /^.+$/  # regular expression
tmp         = "/tmp"  # string

[another-section]  # another section declaration
privileged_users = ["root", "admin"]  # list of strings
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