security is not somewhat convenient and comfortable
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If you want to extends this documentation, pull requests are always welcomed

Your Assets values

  • Less than a few $: don't bother
  • More than 200$: use hardware wallet!
  • More than 10'000$ and up: continue reading ;-)


Dedicated computer

  • QubeOS
    • QubesOS project, which strives to provide a “reasonably secure” workstation environment via compartmentalizing your applications into separate fully isolated VMs
  • Macos
    • with 6% of market share not a real target, but malware exist
    • macos sandbox all applications from appstore
  • linux
    • less than 6% desktop market, not a real target, but malware exist
  • windows 10
    • with 86% market share, heavily targeted

Shared computer May be/is compromised!

  • family computer used for all tasks
  • you're on the go, by friends


  • Use a hardware wallet
  • Use tails linux on a USB stick
    • Attention tails use TOR for all traffic, some provider may detect this as a suspicious login activities

Install ONLY what you need

  • no sharewares
  • no games
  • no flash
  • no pdf viewer (chrome/firefox can do it, Adobe is well known for having zero day exploit)
  • keep your computer’s operating system and software up to date.

Encrypt disk

if computer get stolen you don't want anybody to access anything confidential



  1. chrome: more resistant to malware
  2. firefox
  3. Safari


  • Visit only service you use
  • Check URL for mispelling
  • Browse only in anonymous mode
  • Only use HTTPS so nobody can eavesdrop your activities
  • Always check the URL bar and make sure you’re on the website you think you are before you enter in any information
  • Check certificate to avoid DNS poisoning
    • DNS cache poisoning, also known as DNS spoofing, is a type of attack that exploits vulnerabilities in the domain name system (DNS) to divert Internet traffic away from legitimate servers and towards fake ones.


  • Install ANY browser extensions On dedicated computer you dont need them
    • even adblock
    • even ghostery
  • run any exe downloaded from browser, if its legitimate, check PGP signature FIRST

#Accounts ##Username

  • one username (not obvious name) per service/exchanges


##security questions Always LIE!

  • You may have leak this answer somewhere
  • Hackers "may" found the response in google
  • Don’t use an obvious answer to obvious question: favorite Town: Paris/New York



  • (prefered)
  • use 2FA
    • more powerful
    • use 2FA
    • can not log off existing sessions across devices!

###Adapt your behavior


  • you receive a link or an attachment from someone you KNOW, don’t click or open it

  • If you receive a link or an attachment from someone you don’t know and aren’t expecting, don’t click or open it

  • use extreme caution when clicking on any links or opening any attachments in emails that you receive

  • A hacker can build a social attack:

  1. identifying your friends
  2. infecting them / impersonating your friend
  • do NOT keep any confidential emails in your mailbox, if it get compromised...

###use PGP for any confidential email

  • flowcrypt in chrome
  • mailvelope in chrome

use 2FA


  • TOTP stands for "Time-based One Time Password" every 60s
  • HOTP password may be valid for an unknown amount of time (until your next login)
  • Check the 2FA list to see if your providers are supported.


  • dedicated phone
  • nano ledger S support 2FA
  • get a yubikey USB security key with NFC for Mobile

Online services

golden rules: do not re-use password

  • activate 2FA for login, refuse online service not using it
  • secure master keys / recovery keys on a non computer medium


  • Against hardware failure, human mistakes, flood, theft, fire
  • In an external location,
  • On multiple medium type: usb, dvd
  • ALWAYS encrypted with a well known and secure encryption scheme

Test your backup regularly


Secure document using encrypted container


Private keys

  • do not save them unencrypted on any medium

  • do not save in any cloud

    • provider: they can also
    • be hacked there
  • do not take any picture

    • with ios/android camera: apps can read your photos!
  • keep them in an hardware wallet

Hardware wallet type

####hardware wallet

  • portable devices designed specifically for storing cryptocurrency
  • slow access compare to hot wallet for trading

Some examples

  • Ledger Nano S
  • Keepkey
  • Trezor

How it works

  1. you can buy coins anywhere & then transfer to your hardware wallet's address.
  2. your private keys stay in device & only you have access to it.
  3. If you lose the device or it gets stolen, nobody can access your private keys without PIN code
  4. You can buy a new one & restore your private keys by entering some of the 24 secret words in the correct order

###Cold storage wallet a device that is never connected to the Internet, like an old offline laptop or a USB stick

###Software wallet As secure as the computer they run on...

Different types

  • light wallet
    • Jaxx, Myetherwallet, Electrum, ...
  • full node
    • Mist, Parity, Bitcoin Core, ...
  • hot wallet
    • online wallet on exchanges for day to day transactions
    • fast access but vulnerable
  • paper wallet
    • safe only if in safes and safe deposit boxes
    • can be loss and stolen
    • can be splitted ex: requiring X of Y shares


The rule of thumb

  • Select one convenient but also reliable / secure / trusted / reputable
  • don't keep online what you're not ready to loose!
  • keep online only what you want to trade: no middle/long term storage

Securing exchange access

  • try to restrict access, whitelist your IP if you use VPN
  • use 2FA
  • Spread investments among different exchanges
  • Use a private email per service use nowhere else

Avoiding exchanges bankruptcy

Keep your eye on them

  • Read press for signals
  • CIO/CTO step down
  • Celebrities disengage: read their twitter
  • listen to rumors
  • slow response to user tickets
  • frequent technical issues may lead to
  • introduced questionable administration policies?
  • crash during high trade, but execute still at disadvantageous price.

Remember they are not regulated!

  • Exchange control the keys to your wallet.
  • When exploits are found, we often don’t know until it happens.


Different types

  • Dedicated: a phone number none of your family, friends, relatives, or social networks know that you use
    • Get a burner phone
    • Google Voice number
  • Public
    • your regular phone
    • bad known everywhere


DO NOT paint a target on you

  • Do not publish your emails in forums that you also use for exchanges
  • Do not reveal your REAL timezone: hacker like to act when you're sleeping
  • Do not link publicly your email to telephone number
  • Do not disclose WHERE you trade
  • Do not disclose how much you trade
  • Do not post a picture of your new sport car in specialized group


  • Keep your router up to date, if has not update: change for a new one!
  • Use WPA-2 Personal AES for Wifi
  • Do not connect from a public unencrypted WIFI hotspot
  • Use a VPN