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A finite-state morphological analyzer for Turkish
Python Shell Makefile C
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converters Another converter bugfix.
doc Treat the TAM suffix in verbal adjectives as derivation.
lexicon Lexicon additions/fixes.
scripts Makefile improvements for g2p.
test Updated a test case.
.gitignore New additions to .gitignore.
.todo More lexicon additions.
LICENSE License update: TRmorph is now distributed under LGPL.
Makefile Optionally allow double negative on some verb forms. small typo
TODO Documentation update.
abbr.txt Add a trivial finite-state tokenizer.
analyze_guess.xfst Add a trivial script that combines the analyzer and the guesser.
analyzer.lexc A new lexicon for non-punctuation symbols.
analyzer.xfst Optionally allow double negative on some verb forms.
exceptions.lexc A new option to analyze closing quotation mark as a noun.
g2p.xfst g2p improvements.
guesser.lexc More relaxed settings for the guesser.
guesser.xfst Guesser now produces root+POS tag by default.
hyphenate.xfst License update: TRmorph is now distributed under LGPL. Makefile improvements for g2p.
morph-phon.xfst Replace derivation <esi> with <vn: and <part:esi>.
morph.lexc Mark -(y)sA/ise as <Cnj:adv> as well.
multi-char.lexc Support for m-reduplication.
number.lexc Analyze yarım/buçuk/çeyrek as numerals.
options.h-default Optionally allow double negative on some verb forms.
segment.xfst Improvements/bug fixes in the segmentation tool.
stemmer.xfst Fix the broken stemmer after the tag changes.
tokenize.xfst Add a trivial finite-state tokenizer.

TRmorph (

This is the README file for the new version of TRmorph (updated 2013-07)

TRmorph is a open source/free morphological analyzer for Turkish. The current version is a complete rewrite of the (earlier) SFST[2] version of TRmorph using xfst/lexc. This version is in active development, which may cause some problem and incompatibilities between updates. However, the status is a lot better than the older SFST version, and you are recommended to use the new version. The SFST version is still available through the web page above, but it is not developed any further.

TRmorph is being developed with foma[1]. It should also be trivial to compile it using HFST tools as well (since HFST uses foma as back end). Compiling with Xerox tools should also be possible (if you have to) with minor modifications regarding limited reduplication implemented using foma's _eq().

What is new in this version:

- This is a complete rewrite using more-familiar Xerox languages 
- A completely new lexicon, semi-automatically constructed using
  web corpora and online dictionaries. (more work is needed,
- A revised tag set.
- A few more utilities: stemmer, unknown word guesser,
  segmenter, and a hyphenation tool.
- A manual, in progress, but it is still usable.
- New license: this version of TRmorph is distributed under 
  GNU Lesser General Public License [1] (also see the file

If you use this analyzer in your research, and want to cite it, please (still) cite the following paper:

Çağrı Çöltekin (2010). A Freely Available Morphological Analyzer for Turkish In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC2010), Valletta, Malta, May 2010. (pdf).

Getting started

You can get the latest version of TRmorph from GitHub here: The best is to clone the repository using git, and pull often since this version is changed relatively frequently, but GitHub also allows you to download the as a .zip file.

The compilation requires foma and a C preprocessor (gcc preprocessor is used by default), and make, and a few more UNIX tools. Assuming you have foma[1] installed, type make to compile the analyzer. If all goes well, you should have a binary automaton in foma format called trmorph.fst. After that you can use interactive foma, or flookup for batch processing (both are part of foma). Here are some examples:

$ foma
foma[0]: regex @"trmorph.fst";
2.3 MB. 53564 states, 149484 arcs, Cyclic.
foma[1]: up okudum
foma[1]: down oku<v><past><2s>
foma[1]: exit
$ echo "okudum" |flookup trmorph.fst 
okudu   oku<v><past><1s>

There are also separate automata for segmentation, stemming (or lemmatization) and hyphenation that you can compile and use.

See doc/trmorph-manual.pdf for more information.


[1] [2] [3]

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