Skip to content


Folders and files

Last commit message
Last commit date

Latest commit


Repository files navigation

Comparative Evaluation of Order-Revealing Encryption Schemes and Secure Range-Query Protocols

The paper is submitted to VLDB. See technical report on eprint.

George Kollios and Dmytro Bogatov were supported by an NSF SaTC Frontier Award CNS-1414119. Leonid Reyzin was supported in part by NSF grant 1422965.


Database query evaluation over encrypted data can allow database users to maintain the privacy of their data while outsourcing data processing. Order-Preserving Encryption (OPE) and Order-Revealing Encryption (ORE) were designed to enable efficient query execution, but provide only partial privacy. More private protocols, based on Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE), Oblivious RAM (ORAM) or custom encrypted data structures, have also been designed. In this paper, we develop a framework to provide the first comprehensive comparison among a number of range query protocols that ensure varying levels of privacy of user data. We evaluate five ORE-based and five generic range query protocols. We analyze and compare them both theoretically and experimentally and measure their performance over database indexing and query evaluation. We report not only execution time but also I/O performance, communication amount, and usage of cryptographic primitive operations. Our comparison reveals some interesting insights concerning the relative security and performance of these approaches in database settings.

Analyzed schemes and protocols

We have generated synthetic (uniform and normal distributions) and real (CA public employees salaries) data sets.

The canonical project repository is here.


To run the tool on your data (or our test data)

Either compile the code (see below), or use this docker image dbogatov/ore-benchmark. Here are the few examples (for docker-based approach):

# note that you could simply start an interactive shell session by
docker run -it dbogatov/ore-benchmark

# to examine arguments and option for the tool
docker run dbogatov/ore-benchmark /bin/sh -c "dotnet ./cli.dll --help"
# or see help for specific commands
docker run dbogatov/ore-benchmark /bin/sh -c "dotnet ./cli.dll scheme --help"
docker run dbogatov/ore-benchmark /bin/sh -c "dotnet ./cli.dll protocol --help"

# to see our supplied data
docker run dbogatov/ore-benchmark /bin/sh -c "tree ./data"

# to run simple scheme simulation (e.g. CLWW) on supplied data set
docker run dbogatov/ore-benchmark /bin/sh -c "dotnet ./cli.dll --dataset ./data/uniform/data.txt -v --protocol clww scheme"

# to run simple protocol simulation (e.g. POPE) on supplied data and query sets
docker run dbogatov/ore-benchmark /bin/sh -c "dotnet ./cli.dll --dataset ./data/uniform/data.txt -v --protocol pope protocol --queries ./data/uniform/queries-1.txt"

# to see the format of data and query files
# data file line is an integer, coma, string (in quotes)
# query file line is two integers separated by coma
docker run dbogatov/ore-benchmark /bin/sh -c "head -n 10 ./data/uniform/data.txt"
docker run dbogatov/ore-benchmark /bin/sh -c "head -n 10 ./data/uniform/queries-1.txt"

# to run simulations on your data and queries
# assuming you have a directory /path/to/data/ and it contains data.txt and queries.txt
# here we have mapped your local directory into docker container
docker run \
	-v /path/to/data:/benchmark/your-data/ \
	dbogatov/ore-benchmark \
	/bin/sh -c "dotnet ./cli.dll --dataset ./your-data/data.txt -v --protocol pope protocol --queries ./your-data/queries.txt"

# advanced; to generate JSON output and save it locally
# you have to have a directory /path/to/results, where result.json will appear
docker run \
	-v /path/to/data:/benchmark/your-data/ \
	-v /path/to/results:/benchmark/results/ \
	dbogatov/ore-benchmark \
	/bin/sh -c "dotnet ./cli.dll --dataset ./your-data/data.txt --protocol pope protocol --queries ./your-data/queries.txt > ./results/result.json"

Running the tool locally without docker is more trivial (just omit all docker wrappers).

To build the code locally


# build with
dotnet build -c release ./src/cli/ -o dist/
# resulting binary is ./src/cli/dist/cli.dll

# run with
dotnet ./src/cli/dist/cli.dll --help