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Rayleigh Fading Modeling and Channel Hardening for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

This is a code package is related to the follow scientific article:

Emil Björnson, Luca Sanguinetti, “Rayleigh Fading Modeling and Channel Hardening for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces,” IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, To appear.

The package contains a simulation environment, based on Matlab, that reproduces some of the numerical results and figures in the article. We encourage you to also perform reproducible research!

Abstract of Article

A realistic performance assessment of any wireless technology requires the use of a channel model that reflects its main characteristics. The independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channel model has been (and still is) the basis of most theoretical research on multiple antenna technologies in scattering environments. This letter shows that such a model is not physically appearing when using a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) with rectangular geometry and provides an alternative physically feasible Rayleigh fading model that can be used as a baseline when evaluating RIS-aided communications. The model is used to revisit the basic RIS properties, e.g., the rank of spatial correlation matrices and channel hardening.

Content of Code Package

The article contains 3 simulation figures, numbered 2-4. generateFigureX generates Figure X. The package also contains a Matlab function that is used by one of the scripts.

See each file for further documentation.


E. Björnson was supported by ELLIIT and the Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP). L. Sanguinetti was supported by the University of Pisa under the PRA 2018-2019 Research Project CONCEPT, and by the Italian Ministry of Education and Research (MIUR) in the framework of the CrossLab project (Departments of Excellence).

License and Referencing

This code package is licensed under the GPLv2 license. If you in any way use this code for research that results in publications, please cite our original article listed above.


Simulation code for “Rayleigh Fading Modeling and Channel Hardening for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces, IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, to appear.






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