the ethereum VM implemented in JS
JavaScript
Latest commit 64ef4d0 Jan 3, 2017 @wanderer wanderer committed on GitHub Update README.md

README.md

SYNOPSIS

NPM Package Build Status Gitter or #ethereumjs on freenode

js-standard-style

Implements Ethereum's VM in JS

INSTALL

npm install ethereumjs-vm

USAGE

var VM = require('ethereumjs-vm')

//create a new VM instance
var vm = new VM()
var code = '7f4e616d65526567000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003055307f4e616d6552656700000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000557f436f6e666967000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000073661005d2720d855f1d9976f88bb10c1a3398c77f5573661005d2720d855f1d9976f88bb10c1a3398c77f7f436f6e6669670000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000553360455560df806100c56000396000f3007f726567697374657200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060003514156053576020355415603257005b335415603e5760003354555b6020353360006000a233602035556020353355005b60007f756e72656769737465720000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060003514156082575033545b1560995733335460006000a2600033545560003355005b60007f6b696c6c00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000600035141560cb575060455433145b1560d25733ff5b6000355460005260206000f3'
//code needs to be a buffer
code = new Buffer(code, 'hex')

vm.runCode({
  code: code,
  gasLimit: new Buffer('ffffffff', 'hex') 
}, function(err, results){
  console.log('returned: ' + results.return.toString('hex'));
})

Also more examples can be found here

BROWSER

To build for standalone use in the browser install browserify and run npm run build. This will give you a global variable EthVM to use. The standalone file will be at ./dist/ethereumjs-vm.js

API

new VM([StateTrie], [blockchain])

Creates a new VM object

  • StateTrie - The Patricia Merkle Tree that contains the state. If no trie is given the VM will create an in memory trie.
  • blockchain - an instance of the Blockchain If no blockchain is given a fake blockchain will be used.
  • opts
    • state - the state trie
    • blockchain - an instance of ethereumjs-blockchain
    • enableHomestead - a boolean that overrides the homestead settings based on blocknumber
    • activatePrecompiles - create entries in the state tree for the precompiled contracts

VM methods

vm.runBlockchain(blockchain, cb)

Process a transaction.

  • blockchain - A blockchain that to process
  • cb - The callback. It is given an err parameter if it fails

vm.runBlock(opts, cb)

Processes the block running all of the transactions it contains and updating the miner's account.

  • opts.block - The Block to process
  • opts.generate - a Boolean; whether to generate the stateRoot. If false runBlock will check the stateRoot of the block against the Trie
  • cb - The callback. It is given two arguments, an error string containing an error that may have happened or null, and a results object with the following properties:
    • receipts - the receipts from the transactions in the block

    - results - an Array for results from the transactions in the block

vm.runTx(opts, cb)

Process a transaction.

  • opts.tx - A Transaction to run.
  • opts.block - The block to which the tx belongs. If omitted a blank block will be used.
  • cb - The callback. It is given two arguments, an error string containing an error that may have happened or null, and a results object with the following properties:
    • amountSpent - the amount of ether used by this transaction as a bignum
    • gasUsed - the amount of gas used by the transaction
    • vm - contains the results from running the code, if any, as described in vm.runCode(params, cb)

vm.runCode(opts, cb)

Runs EVM code

  • opts.code - The EVM code to run given as a Buffer
  • opts.data - The input data given as a Buffer
  • opts.value - The value in ether that is being sent to opt.address. Defaults to 0
  • opts.block - The Block the tx belongs to. If omitted a blank block will be used.
  • opts.gasLimit - The gas limit for the code given as a Buffer
  • opts.account - The Account that the executing code belongs to. If omitted an empty account will be used
  • opts.address - The address of the account that is executing this code. The address should be a Buffer of bytes. Defaults to 0
  • opts.origin - The address where the call originated from. The address should be a Buffer of 20bits. Defaults to 0
  • opts.caller - The address that ran this code. The address should be a Buffer of 20bits. Defaults to 0
  • cb - The callback. It is given two arguments, an error string containing an error that may have happened or null and a results object with the following properties
    • gas - the amount of gas left as a bignum
    • gasUsed - the amount of gas as a bignum the code used to run.
    • gasRefund - a Bignum containing the amount of gas to refund from deleting storage values
    • suicides - an Array of accounts that have suicided.
    • suicideTo - the account that the suicide refund should go to.
    • logs - an Array of logs that the contract emitted.
    • exception - 0 if the contract encountered an exception, 1 otherwise.
    • exceptionError - a String describing the exception if there was one.
    • return - a Buffer containing the value that was returned by the contract

vm.stateManager.generateCanonicalGenesis(cb)

Generates the Canonical genesis state.


vm.stateManager.generateGenesis(genesisData, cb)

Generate the genesis state.

  • genesisData - an Object whose keys are addresses and values are strings representing initial allocation of ether.
  • cb - The callback
var genesisData = {
  "51ba59315b3a95761d0863b05ccc7a7f54703d99": "1606938044258990275541962092341162602522202993782792835301376",
  "e4157b34ea9615cfbde6b4fda419828124b70c78": "1606938044258990275541962092341162602522202993782792835301376"
}

vm.generateGenesis(genesisData, function(){
  console.log('generation done');
})

events

All events are instances of async-eventemmiter. If an event handler has an arity of 2 the VM will pause until the callback is called

step

The step event is given an Object and callback. The Object has the following properties.

  • pc - a Number representing the program counter
  • opcode - the next opcode to be ran
  • gas - a bignum standing for the amount of gasLeft
  • stack - an Array of Buffers containing the stack.
  • storageTrie - the storage trie for the account
  • account - the Account which owns the code running.
  • address - the address of the account
  • depth - the current number of calls deep the contract is
  • memory - the memory of the VM as a buffer
  • cache - The account cache. Contains all the accounts loaded from the trie. It is an instance of functional red black tree

beforeBlock

Emits the block that is about to be processed.

afterBlock

Emits the results of the processing a block.

beforeTx

Emits the Transaction that I about to be processed.

afterTx

Emits the result of the transaction.

TESTING

npm test
if you want to just run the Blockchain tests run ./test/tester -b if you want to just run the VM tests run ./test/tester -v if you want to just run the State tests run ./test/tester -s

Internal Structure

The VM processes state changes at many levels.

  • runBlockchain
    • for every block, runBlock
  • runBlock
    • for every tx, runTx
    • pay miner and uncles
  • runTx
    • check sender balance
    • check sender nonce
    • runCall
    • transfer gas charges
  • runCall
    • checkpoint state
    • transfer value
    • load code
    • runCode
    • materialize created contracts
    • revert or commit checkpoint
  • runCode
    • iterate over code
    • run op codes
    • track gas usage
  • OpFns
    • run individual op code
    • modify stack
    • modify memory
    • calculate fee

The opFns for CREATE, CALL, and CALLCODE call back up to runCall.

LICENSE

MPL-2.0