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This contains the modified ARM kernel for the FIRMADYNE framework, which includes an in-tree firmadyne module to perform instrumentation and emulation.

This module can be configured using the following parameters:

Parameter Default Values Description
devfs 1 (on) 0, 1 Create stubs in devfs and emulate behavior
execute 1 (on) 0 - 5 Counter to execute /firmadyne/console after 4th execve() syscall (requires syscall hooks), 0 to disable
reboot 1 (on) 0, 1 Attempt to emulate system reboot by re-executing /sbin/init
procfs 1 (on) 0, 1 Create stubs in procfs and emulate behavior
syscall 255 (all) 0 - 16 Output log bitmask for hooking system calls using the kprobe framework, 0 to disable


Create the kernel build output directory:

mkdir -p build/armel

Copy the configuration file into the build directory:

cp config.armel build/armel/.config

Assuming that the appropriate cross-compiler is installed in /opt/cross/arm-linux-musleabi, execute:

make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/opt/cross/arm-linux-musleabi/bin/arm-linux-musleabi- O=./build/armel zImage -j8

The output kernel image will be generated at the following location:



This instrumented ARM kernel is built for the ARCH_VIRT virtual machine target, which uses VirtIO to perform hardware virtualization. In conjunction with newer versions of QEMU, this allows up to NUM_VIRTIO_TRANSPORTS (32) VirtIO transports to be attached to the emulated machine, avoiding the PCI bus. This provides greater emulation flexibility by supporting more virtualized block and network devices.

As a result, this kernel is much newer in order to fully support VirtIO on ARM, which had previously been under development. However, this kernel has not been fully tested across our entire dataset.

Although the ARM platform is bi-endian, currently upstream QEMU does not support any emulated big-endian ARM targets. As future work, it may be useful to investigate alternative forks of QEMU that do support big-endian ARM, such as the Xilinx fork for BE8. Additionally, it may be useful to add support for 64-bit ARM (AArch64) systems, which may grow increasingly prevalent.

Pull requests are greatly appreciated!