Pork -- Simple and clean and modular testing library
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README.md

Pork Build Status Coverage Status Join the chat at https://gitter.im/godfat/pork

by Lin Jen-Shin (godfat)

LINKS:

DESCRIPTION:

Pork -- Simple and clean and modular testing library.

Inspired by Bacon.

DESIGN:

  • Consistency over convenience.
  • Avoid polluting anything by default to make integration easier.
  • The less codes the better.

WHY?

Bacon has some issues which can't be easily worked around. For example, the context of the running test is not consistent in nested describe block.

This won't work in Bacon:

require 'bacon'
Bacon.summary_on_exit

# This would include to all context,
# so that we don't have to include in all describe block.
Bacon::Context.include Module.new{
  def in_module
    object_id
  end
}

describe 'A' do
  def in_describe
    object_id
  end

  describe 'B' do
    should 'have the same context' do
      in_module.should == in_describe # FAIL!
    end
  end
end

But this works in Pork:

require 'pork/auto'

describe 'A' do
  include Module.new{
    def in_module
      object_id
    end
  }

  def in_describe
    object_id
  end

  describe 'B' do
    would 'have the same context' do
      in_module.should == in_describe
    end

    def in_nested_describe
      object_id
    end

    would 'respond_to? in_nested_describe' do
      should.respond_to?(:in_nested_describe)
    end
  end

  # Pork is completely tree structured, nested methods can't be accessed
  # from outside of the scope.
  would 'not respond_to? in_nested_describe' do
    should.not.respond_to?(:in_nested_describe)
  end
end

describe 'C' do
  # Also, we're not forced to include something in all describe blocks.
  # If we want, we could do this instead: `Pork::Suite.include(Module.new)`
  # That would be the same as including in `Bacon::Context`
  would 'not respond_to? in_module nor in_describe' do
    should.not.respond_to?(:in_module)
    should.not.respond_to?(:in_describe)
  end
end

Also, Bacon won't clear instance variables as well.

require 'bacon'
Bacon.summary_on_exit

describe 'instance variables in tests' do
  before do
    @a ||= 0
    @a  += 1
  end

  should 'always be 1' do
    @a.should == 1
  end

  should 'always be 1' do
    @a.should == 1 # FAIL!
  end
end

Every tests would be a whole new instance for Pork as expected:

require 'pork/auto'

describe 'instance variables in tests' do
  before do
    @a ||= 0
    @a  += 1
  end

  would 'always be 1' do
    @a.should == 1
  end

  would 'always be 1' do
    @a.should == 1
  end
end

REQUIREMENTS:

  • Tested with MRI (official CRuby), Rubinius and JRuby.
  • (Optional) method_source if you would like to print the source for the failing tests.
  • (Optional) ruby-progressbar if you like porgressbar for showing progress. Checkout Pork.report_mode for using it.

INSTALLATION:

gem install pork

SYNOPSIS:

A simple example:

require 'pork/auto'

describe Array do
  before do
    @array = []
  end

  after do
    @array.clear
  end

  would 'be empty' do
    @array.should.empty?
    @array.should.not.include? 1
  end

  would 'have zero size' do
    # We prefer `eq` here over `==` to avoid warnings from Ruby
    @array.size.should.eq 0
  end

  would 'raise IndexError for fetching from non-existing index' do
    should.raise(IndexError){ @array.fetch(0) }.message.
      should.match(/\d+/)

    # Alternatively:
    lambda{ @array.fetch(0) }.should.raise(IndexError).message.
      should.match(/\d+/)
  end
end

Copy and paste for modularity:

require 'pork/auto'

copy 'empty test' do |error|
  after do
    @data.clear
  end

  would 'be empty' do
    @data.should.empty?
    @data.should.not.include? 1
  end

  would 'have zero size' do
    # We prefer `eq` here over `==` to avoid warnings from Ruby
    @data.size.should.eq 0
  end

  would "raise #{error} for fetching from non-existing index" do
    should.raise(error){ @data.fetch(0) }.message.
      should.match(/\d+/)

    # Alternatively:
    lambda{ @data.fetch(0) }.should.raise(error).message.
      should.match(/\d+/)
  end
end

describe Array do
  before do
    @data = []
  end

  paste 'empty test', IndexError
end

describe Hash do
  before do
    @data = {}
  end

  paste 'empty test', KeyError
end

Context sensitive paste:

require 'pork/auto'

copy 'empty test' do |error|
  paste :setup_data # it would search from the pasted context

  would "raise #{error} for fetching from non-existing index" do
    should.raise(error){ @data.fetch(0) }.message.
      should.match(/\d+/)
  end
end

describe Array do
  copy :setup_data do
    before do
      @data = []
    end
  end

  paste 'empty test', IndexError
end

describe Hash do
  copy :setup_data do
    before do
      @data = {}
    end
  end

  paste 'empty test', KeyError
end

What if I don't want any monkey patches?

For the lazies and the greatest convenience but the least flexibility, we could simply require 'pork/auto' and everything above should work. However, as you can see, there are some monkey patches around, and you might not want to see any of them. In this case DON'T require it.

Here's what require 'pork/auto' would do:

require 'pork'
require 'pork/should'
require 'pork/more'
extend Pork::API
Pork.autorun

Here it require 'pork/should', and it would load the monkey patches for inserting Kernel#should shown in SYNOPSIS. This is actually optional, and could be replaced with Pork::Suite#expect. For example, we could also write it this way:

require 'pork'

Pork::API.describe Array do
  before do
    @array = []
  end

  after do
    @array.clear
  end

  would 'be empty' do
    expect(@array).empty?
    expect(@array).not.include? 1
  end
end

# or: Pork.autorun
Pork::Executor.execute.report

As you can see, this way we no longer use any monkey patches and we don't even use at_exit hook to run tests. Also note that we could turn autorun off by passing false to it:

Pork.autorun(false)

We might need to turn autorun off occasionally, for example, we do need to turn this off when integrating mutant. Passing true again to autorun could re-enable it.

Also note that there's a number of plugins would be loaded upon:

require 'pork/more'

Where's the pork command?

It's not implemented. No strong reasons. You could simply run the tests by requiring the files defining tests, or execute them directly, with autorun enabled. (by require 'pork/auto' or call Pork.autorun)

Here's a example command to require all test files and automatically run them. With Fish shell:

ruby -Ilib -rpork/auto -r(ls ./test/test_*.rb) -e ''

Or

ruby -Ilib -rpork/auto -r(find ./test -name '*.rb' -type f) -e ''

With Bash shell:

ruby -Ilib -rpork/auto $(ls ./test/test_*.rb | awk '{print "-r" $0}') -e ''

Personally I have a rake task which would do this for me, so I just run rake test to run all the tests.

The API

Kernel#should

All the assertions begin with should. Whenever we called should on an object, it would create an Pork::Should object which would verify the assertion we make. For the simplest case, this verifies if 1 == 1:

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should.eq 1 }

Sometimes we would also want to have a customized message if the assertion failed, as in assert_equal 1, 1, 'the message', we pass the message as the first argument to should.

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should('verify one equals to one').eq 1 }

In a rare case, constructing the message could be expensive, so we might not want to build the message if the assertion passed. Then we pass the second argument as the constructor of the message.

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should(nil, lambda{'verify one equals to one'}).eq 1 }

Other than built in assertions such as eq, all methods in the questioning object are available. For example, for arrays we could use empty?, include? and [].

describe Array do
  would 'have array methods as verifiers' do
    [ ].should.empty?
    [1].should.include? 1
    [1].should[0]
  end
end

The assertions would only fail whenever the result was false or nil, otherwise pass.

Pork::Expect#satisfy

If we want to have custom verifier other than the methods from questioning object, this is it.

require 'pork/auto'

describe do
  divided_by_2 = lambda{ |n| n % 2 == 0 }

  would do
    2.should.satisfy(&divided_by_2)
  end
end

The message argument applies to should also applies to satisfy.

require 'pork/auto'

describe do
  divided_by_2 = lambda{ |n| n % 2 == 0 }

  would do
    2.should.satisfy('be divided by two', &divided_by_2)
    2.should.satisfy(nil, lambda{'be divided by two'}, &divided_by_2)
  end
end

Pork::Expect#not

An easy way to negate the expectation.

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should.not.eq 2 }

Pork::Expect#eq

To avoid warnings from Ruby, using eq instead of ==. It's fine if you still prefer using == if you don't care about warnings.

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should.eq 1 }

Pork::Expect#lt

To avoid warnings from Ruby, using lt instead of <. It's fine if you still prefer using < if you don't care about warnings.

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should.lt 2 }

Pork::Expect#gt

To avoid warnings from Ruby, using gt instead of >. It's fine if you still prefer using > if you don't care about warnings.

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should.gt 0 }

Pork::Expect#lte

To avoid warnings from Ruby, using lte instead of <=. It's fine if you still prefer using <= if you don't care about warnings.

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should.lte 1 }

Pork::Expect#gte

To avoid warnings from Ruby, using gte instead of >=. It's fine if you still prefer using >= if you don't care about warnings.

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.should.gte 1 }

Pork::Expect#approx

Comparing two floating point numbers is troublesome. approx would round on two numbers so it would make less false positives. There's an optional second argument which indicates the precision for the fractional part. By default it's 10. (round on 10)

require 'pork/auto'

would{ 1.23.should.approx 1.225, 2 }

Pork::Expect#raise

Expect for exceptions! There are two ways to call it. Either you could use lambda to wrap the questioning expression, or you could simply pass a block as the questioning expression.

require 'pork/auto'

describe 'Pork::Expect#raise' do
  would 'check with a block' do
    e = should.raise(RuntimeError){ raise "nnf" }
    e.should.message.include?("nnf")
  end

  would 'check with a lambda' do
    e = lambda{ raise "nnf" }.should.raise(RuntimeError)
    e.should.message.include?("nnf")
  end
end

Pork::Expect#throw

Expect for something to be thrown. There are two ways to call it. Either you could use lambda to wrap the questioning expression, or you could simply pass a block as the questioning expression.

require 'pork/auto'

describe 'Pork::Should#throw' do
  would 'check with a block' do
    e = should.throw(:nnf){ throw :nnf, 0 }
    e.should.eq [:nnf, 0]
  end

  would 'check with a lambda' do
    e = lambda{ throw :nnf, 1 }.should.throw(:nnf)
    e.should.eq [:nnf, 1]
  end
end

Pork::API.describe

So this creates a test suite which should be containing various test cases (Pork::API.would). The argument represents the description of the test suite, which accepts anything could be converted to a string. The default description is :default (which would be converted to 'default: ')

Each describe block would create a new subclass of Pork::Suite for isolating test suites. Each nested describe block would be a subclass of its parent Pork::Suite.

require 'pork/auto'

describe do
  would 'be default: for the default description' do
    self.class.desc.should.eq :default
  end
end

Pork::API.would

Essentially runs a test case. It could also be called in the top-level without being contained in a describe block. The argument represents the description of the test case, which accepts anything could be converted to a string. The default description is also :default.

Each would block would be run inside a new instance of the describing Pork::Suite to isolate instance variables.

Pork::API.before

Each before block would be called before each would block (test case). You would probably want to setup stuffs inside before blocks.

Each nested describe would also run parents' before blocks as well.

require 'pork/auto'

describe do
  before do
    @a = 0
  end

  describe do
    before do
      @a.should.eq 0
      @a += 1
    end

    would do
      @a.should.eq 1
    end
  end
end

Pork::API.after

Each after block would be called after each would block (test case). You would probably want to cleanup stuffs inside after blocks.

Note that each nested describe would also run parents' after block in a reverse manner as opposed to before.

require 'pork/auto'

describe do
  after do
    @a.should.eq 2
  end

  describe do
    after do
      @a.should.eq 1
      @a += 1
    end

    would do
      @a = 1
      @a.should.eq 1
    end
  end
end

Pork::API.copy and Pork::API.paste

It could be a bit confusing at first, but just think of copy as a way to store the block with a name (default is :default), and whenever we paste, the stored block would be called at the context where we paste.

The name could be anything, strings, symbols, numbers, classes, anything.

The block passed to copy could have parameters. The second through the last arguments passed to paste would be passing to the block saved in copy.

require 'pork/auto'

copy :default do |a=0, b=1|
  before do
    @a, @b = a, b
  end

  def f
    @a + @b
  end
end

describe do
  paste :default, 1, 0

  would do
    f.should.eq 1
  end
end

Pork::Suite#expect

It is the core of Kernel#should. Think of:

object.should.eq(1)

is equivalent to:

expect(object).eq(1)

Also:

object.should('message').eq(1)

is equivalent to:

expect(object, 'message').eq(1)

Pork::Suite#skip

At times we might want to skip some tests while leave the codes there without removing them or commenting them out. This is where skip would be helpful.

require 'pork/auto'

describe do
  would do
    skip
  end
end

Pork::Suite#ok

Because Pork would complain if a test case does not have any assertions, sometimes we might want to tell Pork that it's ok because we've already made some assertions without using Pork's assertions. Then we'll want ok.

The reason why complaining about missing assertions is useful is because sometimes we might expect some assertions would be made in a certain flow. If the flow is not correctly called, we could miss assertions. So it's good to explicitly claim that we don't care about assertions rather than letting them slip through implicitly.

require 'pork/auto'

describe do
  would do
    'verify with mocks, and pork has no idea about that'.to_s
    ok
  end
end

Pork::Suite#flunk

If we're writing program carefully, there are a few cases where a condition would never meet. We could raise "IMPOSSIBLE" or we could simply call flunk.

require 'pork/auto'

describe do
  would do
    should.raise(Pork::Error){ flunk }
  end
end

The Options

env PORK_TEST=

As the code base grows, at some point running the whole test suites could be very slow and frustrating while doing agile development. In this case, we might want to run only a subset of the whole test suites. Granted that we could already divide the tests into files, and only load one file and run tests inside the file. But if the tests are just slow, we might still want to run only a specific test case. This is where env PORK_TEST= shines.

Suppose you run the tests via:

ruby -Ilib test/test_pork.rb

Then you could do:

env PORK_TEST=test/test_pork.rb:123 ruby -Ilib test/test_pork.rb

So that it would only run the test case around test_pork.rb line 123. If you run the tests via:

rake test

Then you could do:

env PORK_TEST=test/test_pork.rb:123 rake test

It's the same thing just that rake test might load more tests which would never run. Note that if you omit the line number, then the whole file would run.

env PORK_TEST= with :groups

PORK_TEST could also take a list of groups. Groups are defined in the tests, as the second argument to describe and would. Take this as an example:

describe 'all', :groups => [:all] do
  would 'pass', :groups => [:core, :more] do
    ok
  end

  would 'also pass', :groups => [:more] do
    ok
  end
end

Then if specifying PORK_TEST=all, or PORK_TEST=more, then both tests would run. If specifying PORK_TEST=core, then only the first would run. We could also specifying multiple groups, separated with commas (,), like PORK_TEST=core,more, then of course both tests would run.

This would be very useful when you want to run a specific test case without typing the whole file path and finding the line number. Just edit your test source by adding some temporary group like :groups => [:only] and then run the test command prefixed by env PORK_TEST=only then you're done. You could just remove the group after debugging. This must be much easier to do then commenting out a bunch of random codes in the tests.

Summary by examples:

  • env PORK_TEST='test/test_pork.rb:123' rake test
  • env PORK_TEST='test/test_pork.rb' rake test
  • env PORK_TEST='group0' rake test
  • env PORK_TEST='group0,group1' rake test

env PORK_SEED=

By default, before running a test case, Pork would try to generate a random seed for each test case. This way, we could easily replicate each test case by setting the same random seed.

However, this could hurt performance and randomness. This is a trade off before Ruby can restore arbitrary random state. If you don't want this behaviour, you could set PORK_SEED=random to force Pork only set the seed before running the entire test suite, saving you some performance and randomness.

Otherwise, you don't have to care about this option. Just copy and paste the replicating command when one of your test cases failed.

Pork.protected_exceptions

By default, Pork only rescues exceptions derived from StandardError, this is due to the fact that we don't want to interfere with some system exception like signal handling and so on so forth. (e.g. SignalException, LoadError, SyntaxError, etc).

However, some libraries do not raise exceptions derived from StandardError. I would recommend fix them, but as a workaround, you could also tell Pork to rescue those exceptions so that your test suites won't just stop there.

Let's take webmock as an example, we'll do this to avoid stopping the tests whenever webmock complains:

Pork.protected_exceptions << WebMock::NetConnectNotAllowedError

This would effectively tell Pork to rescue it and treat it as a regular test error instead of stopping the whole process.

Pork.execute_mode

By default, Pork.execute_mode is set to :shuffled which would execute all tests in a random order. The other options are:

  • :shuffled (default)
  • :sequential
  • :parallel

With :sequential, it would execute all tests in a sequential manner. With :parallel, it would run tests with 8 threads concurrently, and of course, the orders are all random as well. You'll need to make sure your tests are thread safe or random tests would fail with this mode.

Pass the symbol to it to use the mode:

Pork.execute_mode :parallel

On the other hand, you could also set ENV['PORK_MODE'] for picking an execution mode. This would be convenient if you just want to switch to a particular mode temporary via command line. For example:

env PORK_MODE=parallel rake test

Or:

env PORK_MODE=parallel ruby -Ilib test/test_pork.rb

Pork.report_mode

By default, Pork.report_mode is set to :dot which would print a dot for each test case. This is the same as test/unit bundled in Ruby. We provide another option: :description which would print the description for each test case. This might be useful if you are not running a bunch of test cases. All the options are:

Pass the symbol to it to use the mode:

Pork.report_mode :description

Or if you want to use a progressbar:

Pork.report_mode :progressbar
# Show your love for rainbows when you're feeling lucky! Highly recommended!
Pork.Rainbows! if rand(50) == 0

On the other hand, you could also set ENV['PORK_REPORT'] for picking an reporting mode. This would be convenient if you just want to switch to a particular mode temporary via command line. For example:

env PORK_REPORT=progressbar rake test

Or:

env PORK_REPORT=progressbar ruby -Ilib test/test_pork.rb

Caveat: You might see interleaving description output if you're running Pork.report_mode :description with Pork.execute_mode :shuffled because... it's shuffled. You might want to run in Pork.execute_mode :sequential when using description report if you don't want to see interleaving descriptions.

Pork.inspect_failure_mode

By default, Pork.inspect_failure_mode is set to :auto, which would display failures accordingly. For example, if the message is short, it would simply show the message. But if the message is long, it would try to insert a newline between actual result and expected result, since it would be much easier for human to distinguish the difference this way. If the message is really long, it would even use diff to show the difference.

This is because if the actual string is long, it would be quite painful to find the actual difference for human without assistance.

Additionally, if both the actually object and expected object are hashes, and if the actually hash is fairly large, it would also try to differentiate the two and give you a more readable result like:

Pork::Failure: Expect
        Hash with key path: "categories:0:chats:0:mentor:username"
"Expect Name".==("Actual Name") to return true

For this:

mentor = {"Some" => "Random", "Data" => "Here", "This's" => "Large"}
expect("categories" => [{"chats" => [{"mentor" =>
         mentor.merge("username" => "Actual Name")}]}]).eq \
       "categories" => [{"chats" => [{"mentor" =>
         mentor.merge("username" => "Expect Name")}]}]

This should much improve the time to figure out why it's failing.

However, this might not really be desired at times. So we should be able to switch between each mode. For now, we have the following modes:

  • :auto (default)
  • :inline
  • :newline
  • :diff

If we want to force to a specific mode, here's how we would do:

Pork.inspect_failure_mode :newline

Then it would always use the mode we specified.

Pork.autorun

Calling this would register an at_exit hook to run tests at exit. This also accepts an argument to turn on and off autorun. Calling this multiple times is ok. (It's not thread safe though, don't call this twice from different threads at the same time. If you really want to do this, let's add a mutex for this)

It would also exit with 0 if no error occurs or N for N errors and failures.

Pork.autorun        # enable
Pork.autorun(false) # disable
Pork.autorun(true)  # enable

require 'pork/auto' would call Pork.autorun

Pork.show_source

If you have method_source installed, you could call this and have Pork print the source to the failing lines. Here's an example of what Pork would print with Pork.show_source:

  Replicate this test with:
env PORK_TEST='test/test_pork.rb:12' PORK_MODE=shuffled PORK_SEED=345 /usr/bin/ruby -S test/test_pork.rb
  test/test_pork.rb:13:in `block in <main>'
     would 'print the source' do
  =>   flunk
     end
would print the source
Pork::Error: Flunked

Pork.Rainbows!

Have you seen Rainbows!?

Screenshot

CONTRIBUTORS:

  • Chun-Yi Liu (@trantorliu)
  • Lin Jen-Shin (@godfat)
  • Josh Kalderimis (@joshk)
  • Yang-Hsing Lin (@mz026)

LICENSE:

Apache License 2.0

Copyright (c) 2014-2016, Lin Jen-Shin (godfat)

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.