ebpf is the linux tracing mechanism and uprobes are dynamic probes for user space programs. The ebpf program attaches to a user probe and gets executed when that function is invoked. Here it seems the golang stack is resized and the return of the ebpf program gets a segmentation fault as it points to a invalid address
The title and description is misleading. Uprobes do in fact work with Go programs. What does not work are uretprobes.
A uprobe is associated with a userspace program binary and offset. When a probe is added, Linux will load that program, save the old instruction at the absolute file offset and patch it with a trap instruction. When the probe is hit, the eBPF program will be executed in kernel space. This works fine with normal uprobes.
A uretprobe patches a function in a similar way at entry, but it will modify the return address on the stack to a trampoline function. Once hit, the EBPF program is executed and the instruction pointer is modified to the original return address again. If the stack changes, this will likely cause corruption and crashes.
uretprobes should not be used with Go programs.