Skip to content

Written by InGuardians' Faith Alderson and Larry Pesce, VaporTrail is a tool for data transmission over FM, using RPITX to transmit from an out-of-the-box Raspberry Pi, and an RTL-SDR to receive. Twitter handles: @unknownloner, @haxorthematrix, @inguardians

Switch branches/tags
Go to file

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time


!! Important for Mac Users !! currently does not work on macOS, because I used a mktemp flag which macOS doesn't support. I will be fixing this soon, but in the mean time please use a Linux VM.

VaporTrail is a tool for data transmission over FM, using RPITX to transmit from an out-of-the-box Raspberry Pi, and an RTL-SDR to receive. Rudimentary block-based error correction is implemented using the zfec project. VaporTrail currently transmits at 2000 bits per second using a bandwidth of roughly 31 KHz, and can likely work at higher data rates.

1. Building and Installing VaporTrail

1.1. Install RPITX On Transmitter

Install RPITX from Ensure the rpitx command is available in your PATH. RPITX's script will do this automatically by installing to /usr/bin

1.2. Install GQRX And socat On Receiver

The current supported method of FM demodulation is to use GQRX, sending the output to a netcat or socat listener over UDP. This is a little janky, and could be made better by using rtl_fm instead, but in the meantime, you will need to install the gqrx tool before using VaporTrail.

The upside is, using GQRX makes it much easier to identify and isolate the signal before receiving due to its graphical interface.

1.2.1. Mac

Install socat with Homebrew

brew install socat

Download GQRX from

Alternatively, install with Homebrew

brew cask install gqrx

1.2.2. Ubuntu

apt-get install socat gqrx-sdr

1.2.3. Arch Linux

pacman -S socat gqrx

1.2.4. Everything Else

See for information on downloading and installing GQRX.

Consult your distribution's package repositories for socat installation.

1.3. VaporTrail Raspberry Pi Binaries

Compiling the libraries needed for VaporTrail can take quite a long time on a Raspberry Pi, so for your convenience we've included a binary ARMv7 build in the Releases.

1.4. Building From Source

First, install the stack build tool. See for details.

Then, from the project root folder:

stack setup    # Downloads/installs the Haskell compiler if needed
stack build    # Recursively build the project and all dependencies

Stack will tell you what folder the executable file is located. For example:

Installing executable(s) in <path>

You may either copy the file from that folder to wherever you want, or run

stack install

to automatically install the executable in $HOME/.local/bin

1.4.1. Building on Raspberry Pi

Compiling Haskell can take a good chunk of RAM. When building on a Raspberry Pi it's a good idea to force stack to use only a single build job. By default, stack will use four build jobs, one per core, but this will quickly use up all available RAM and force the compiler to dip into swap constantly.

stack build -j 1

Even when using a single job, be sure to have some swap available just in case. One gigabyte of swap should be sufficient, but two gigabytes may be a good idea just to be safe.

The first compilation will take a long time, as it will require building all dependencies as well. Our initial build took a little over two hours. Re-compiling after changing the source code is significantly faster, in the order of one to two minutes.

2. Using VaporTrail

2.1. Transmitting From a Raspberry Pi with tools/

Ensure the vaportrail and rpitx binaries are both available on your PATH (meaning you can run them without a folder prefix such as ./). If you installed vaportrail with stack install, add the following line to your .bashrc file and log out and back in to your raspberry pi.

export PATH="$HOME/.local/bin:$PATH"

Then, simply pipe data into tools/ For example, to transmit the text "Hello":

echo "Hello" | tools/

To transmit a file named transmit_me:

tools/ < transmit_me

2.2. Receiving With GQRX and tools/

Open GQRX and tune to the frequency on which you're going to transmit.

From the "Input Controls" tab, disable Hardware AGC.

From the "Receiver Options" tab, change the filter mode to "Narrow FM".

From the "FFT Settings" tab, increase the "Freq zoom" to somewhere around 30x to make it easier to see the signal, and set the FFT size to 16384 or 32768.

Switch back to the "Receiver Options" tab.

Click and drag on the filter window box (centered around the line indicating your current frequency tuning) until the Filter width is around 32K.

Click the "UDP" button in the bottom right to transmit output data over UDP.

Now, in a terminal, run


Alternatively, if you wish to save to a file, run

tools/ > outputfile

This will listen for UDP data on the default GQRX port until you press enter. After pressing enter, it will attempt to decode all data it received.

Begin transmitting. During the transmission, monitor GQRX. The center line in the signal display window should line up with the center hump of the incoming signal. If it doesn't, re-tune as necessary.

Once the transmission has completed, press enter to decode it.

If all data was received successfully, you should see the same data you transmitted.

2.3. Using VaporTrail Directly

This section documents how to use the vaportrail command directly, for if you want to skip the wrapper scripts and do it yourself.

2.3.1. Encode PCM Data

vaportrail enc_pcm

Read data from STDIN and encode it to a raw PCM audio stream. The stream has a single 48000Hz channel of 16-bit signed little-endian samples.

The following command pipeline should pass through the input data to the output unchanged. If it does not, please report this as a bug. Currently, this will fail for infinite data sources such as tail -f.

vaportrail enc_pcm | vaportrail dec

2.3.2. Encode RPITX RF Commands

vaportrail enc

Read data from STDIN and encode it to RPITX's RF format (-m RF). This format represents an FM signal with a series of tone instructions structured as shown here:

8 byte little-endian double         Frequency offset from
                                    center frequency in Hz.

4 byte little-endian unsigned int   Duration of tone in nanoseconds.

4 byte padding                      Unused padding data

2.3.3. Decode PCM Data

vaportrail dec

Read a raw PCM audio stream and decode a VaporTrail-encoded signal. The input stream must consist of a single 48000Hz channel of 16-bit signed little-endian samples.

3. Current Limitations

There's a few limitations in VaporTrail which are definitely solvable, but have not been fixed yet. These are listed below.

3.1. GQRX Can't Be Used Programmatically

I (unknownln) have never interfaced with the RTL-SDR programmatically, so I have no idea how to do it yet. Since VaporTrail currently relies on the graphical GQRX program to handle demodulation the incoming FM signal, the Raspberry Pi can't decode yet, at least not without installing a GUI. I'll be looking into this soon, to support repeaters and two-way communication.

In the mean time, feel free to experiment with the standard RTL-SDR command line tool for FM demodulation, rtl_fm. It should be possible to use this in place of GQRX. That said, rtl_fm's FM demodulation isn't as good as GQRX's, so VaporTrail may not be able to decode the output. If I test this method and get it working I'll update this README with details.

3.2. No Raspberry Pi Zero Support

As of writing this README, VaporTrail can only encode data on a Raspberry Pi 2 or Raspberry Pi 3. An encoder will have to be written in another language to implement VaporTrail on a Raspberry Pi Zero or B+, because they use ARMv6 processors, which Haskell does not support. Luckily, the encode process is much simpler than the decode process, so rewriting it should not be terribly difficult. The primary challenge will be the use of a random number generator to generate noise which is XORed with the data to more uniformly distribute the ones and zeroes in the data. We'll need to write our own implementation of an RNG to ensure that the encoder and decoder get the same results from the same input seed.

3.3. No Streaming Decoder

Additionally, VaporTrail can not yet decode a stream of data, meaning a received transmission must be written entirely to disk before it can be decoded. Note by unknownln: I'm currently working on a solution to this, and I'll hopefully have it implemented within a week or two of today, August 02, 2017.

3.4. Issues With Streaming Encoding

There's been an issue when encoding data while piping to RPITX where RPITX will sometimes cut off before the transmission is finished. The cause is currently unknown. This issue is low priority, since it may be fixed during the rewrite for Pi Zero support, or the rewrite to fix the streaming decoder. However, it is something that should remain on the radar moving forward. To work around it, the transmission script currently encodes input data fully to a temp file before transmitting that file.


Written by InGuardians' Faith Alderson and Larry Pesce, VaporTrail is a tool for data transmission over FM, using RPITX to transmit from an out-of-the-box Raspberry Pi, and an RTL-SDR to receive. Twitter handles: @unknownloner, @haxorthematrix, @inguardians




No packages published