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beebug - A tool for checking exploitability

Description

beebug is a tool that can be used to verify if a program crash could be exploitable.

This tool was presented the first time at r2con 2018 in Barcelona.

Some implemented functionality are:

  • Stack overflow on libc
  • Crash on Program Counter
  • Crash on branch
  • Crash on write memory
  • Heap vulnerabilities
  • Read access violation (some exploitable cases)
  • Graph based on [functrace](https://github.com/invictus1306/functrace) (Dynamic Binary Instrumentation)

We can use beebug for:

  • Crash analysis (based on r2pipe)
  • Graph Generation (based on functrace)
  • Crash analysis + Graph Generation

Dependencies

  • r2pipe
  • pydot
  • graphviz
  • pyqtgraph

Installation

$ wget https://github.com/radare/radare2/archive/3.5.0.tar.gz
$ tar xvzf 3.5.0.tar.gz
$ cd radare2-3.5.0/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make -j8

$ sudo make install
$ sudo apt-get install graphviz

$ git clone https://github.com/invictus1306/beebug
$ cd beebug
$ sudo pip3 install -r requirements.txt

Simple DEMO

beebug

Usage

help

$ python3 ./beebug.py -h
usage: beebug.py [-h] -t TARGET [-ta TARGETARGS] [-f FILE] [-g GRAPH] [-i]
                 [-a] [-r REPORT_FILE] [-v]

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -t TARGET, --target TARGET
                        target program to analyze
  -ta TARGETARGS, --targetargs TARGETARGS
                        arguments for the target program
  -f FILE, --file FILE  input file
  -g GRAPH, --graph GRAPH
                        output graph name
  -i, --instrumentation
                        instrumentation option
  -a, --analyze         analyze crash
  -r REPORT_FILE, --report_file REPORT_FILE
                        DynamoRIO report file to parse
  -v, --version         show program's version number and exit

Crash analysis using r2 (no instrumentation)

$ python3 beebug.py -t ./tests/simple_crash -a
Process with PID 5047 started...
File dbg:///home/invictus1306/Documents/warcon_demo/beebug/tests/simple_crash  reopened in read-write mode
= attach 5047 5047
ptrace (PT_ATTACH): Operation not permitted
child stopped with signal 11
[+] SIGNAL 11 errno=0 addr=0x00000000 code=1 ret=0
ptrace (PT_ATTACH): Operation not permitted
ptrace (PT_ATTACH): Operation not permitted
Invalid write crash - Generally it is exploitable, the write value/address could be tainted - Invalid write of size 2
backtrace
0  0x400552           sp: 0x0                 0    [sym.vuln]   
1  0x400574           sp: 0x7fff635890c8      24   [main]  main+25 
2  0x7f34d4372830     sp: 0x7fff635890e8      32   [??]  sym.libc_start_main+240 
3  0x7f34d472c7cb     sp: 0x7fff63589178      144  [??]  sym.dl_rtld_di_serinfo+29051 
4  0x400459           sp: 0x7fff635891a8      48   [??]  entry0+41 

registers
rax = 0x00000000
rbx = 0x00000000
rcx = 0x7f34d4716b20
rdx = 0x01d85010
r8 = 0x01d85000
r9 = 0x0000000d
r10 = 0x7f34d4716b78
r11 = 0x00000000
r12 = 0x00400430
r13 = 0x7fff635891c0
r14 = 0x00000000
r15 = 0x00000000
rsi = 0x01d85020
rdi = 0x7f34d4716b20
rsp = 0x7fff635890b0
rbp = 0x7fff635890c0
rip = 0x00400552
rflags = 0x00010202
orax = 0xffffffffffffffff

configuration file for instrumentation

It is needed only of you want to use instrumentation

config file

[dynamorio]
drrun               = /your_path/DynamoRIO-Linux-7.0.0-RC1/bin64/drrun
client              = /your_path/functrace/build/libfunctrace.so
[instrumentation]
disassembly         = False
disas_func          = main
wrap_function       =
wrap_function_args  = 0
cbr                 = True
verbose             = False

Graph generation (no crash analysis)

$ python3 beebug.py -t ./tests/simple_crash -i -r report1 -g graph1 
$ xpdf grap1

simplecrash

Crash analysis + Graph generation

python3 beebug.py -t ./tests/simple_crash -i -r report1 -g graph1 -a
Process with PID 5081 started...
File dbg:///home/invictus1306/Documents/warcon_demo/beebug/tests/simple_crash  reopened in read-write mode
= attach 5081 5081
ptrace (PT_ATTACH): Operation not permitted
child stopped with signal 11
[+] SIGNAL 11 errno=0 addr=0x00000000 code=1 ret=0
ptrace (PT_ATTACH): Operation not permitted
ptrace (PT_ATTACH): Operation not permitted
Invalid write crash - Generally it is exploitable, the write value/address could be tainted - Invalid write of size 4
backtrace
0  0x400552           sp: 0x0                 0    [sym.vuln]   
1  0x400574           sp: 0x7fff5ec31f88      24   [main]  main+25 
2  0x7fb834795830     sp: 0x7fff5ec31fa8      32   [??]  sym.libc_start_main+240 
3  0x7fb834b4f7cb     sp: 0x7fff5ec32038      144  [??]  sym.dl_rtld_di_serinfo+29051 
4  0x400459           sp: 0x7fff5ec32068      48   [??]  entry0+41 

registers
rax = 0x00000000
rbx = 0x00000000
rcx = 0x7fb834b39b20
rdx = 0x00d15010
r8 = 0x00d15000
r9 = 0x0000000d
r10 = 0x7fb834b39b78
r11 = 0x00000000
r12 = 0x00400430
r13 = 0x7fff5ec32080
r14 = 0x00000000
r15 = 0x00000000
rsi = 0x00d15020
rdi = 0x7fb834b39b20
rsp = 0x7fff5ec31f70
rbp = 0x7fff5ec31f80
rip = 0x00400552
rflags = 0x00010202
orax = 0xffffffffffffffff

Limitation

  • If the program require user input at runtime, it is not possibile to add it (based on r2pipe)
  • graph view (based on pydot/graphiz) is limited to small target program

Future direction

  • Support different architectures
  • Graph improvement (based on graphviz)
  • Analyze core dumps (based on radare2)

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A tool for checking exploitability

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