A repository for ASP.NET MVC patterns and best practices
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Adapters.Tests Prepare for next iteration Jan 13, 2014
Adapters
DataModeling.Tests Create fluent interface for the exception wrapper. Apr 19, 2014
DataModeling
DataObjects Prepare for next iteration Jan 13, 2014
DatabaseMigration Create fluent interface for the exception wrapper. Apr 19, 2014
MvcUtilities.Tests
MvcUtilities Clean up CustomFieldNameModelBinder class Jan 17, 2014
Policies.Tests
Policies Prepare for next iteration Jan 13, 2014
QueryableInterceptors Create fluent interface for the exception wrapper. Apr 19, 2014
ServiceInterfaces.Tests
ServiceInterfaces Support loading entities related to a collection. Apr 18, 2014
TestMvcApplication.Tests
TestMvcApplication Entity loader enhancements. Apr 18, 2014
TestUtilities
ViewModels Prepare for next iteration Jan 13, 2014
.gitattributes
.gitignore
README.md Rename CustomerSetting to AddressItem Aug 14, 2013
TestMvcApplication.sln Entity loader enhancements. Apr 18, 2014

README.md

TestMvcApplication

A repository for ASP.NET MVC patterns and best practices.

Purpose

After a year of struggling with ASP.NET MVC, I finally made a breakthrough. I learned a handful of techniques that made working with ASP.NET MVC a productive, reliable and fun experience. This project acts as a collection of classes, techniques, conventions and development philosophies. It is approachable for advanced and entry-level developers alike. For those just learning ASP.NET MVC, it demonstrates how to organize your code and provides working, reusable components. For the more advanced, it provides techniques to eliminate duplication, illustrates how to use popular frameworks and provides some guidelines for building an n-tier architecture.

This is an open and on-going project. I hope that it will continue to evolve and be helpful.

Getting Started

This project uses NuGet to reference dependencies. You will need to add NuGet through the package manager. Once you do, the dependencies should be brought down the first time you build.

This project uses Entity Framework's code-first to build a test database. There is a DatabaseMigration project that you can run to create your database. You will need to modify the app.config file to point the connection string to a valid database. Before you run the web application ( TestMvcApplication ), you will need to change the web.config's connection string as well.

Points of Interest

To save you time from pouring over hundreds of lines of code, I will try to direct your attention to features that will be useful for you.

Service Interfaces

This project contains the interfaces to the data/service layer. Here the interfaces for Repositories are found. You will also find the DTOs that are passed to/returned by the repositories. This project is also where the interfaces for connecting to remote services, the file system, an SMTP server, etc. would go.

ServiceException is used to indicate that an error occurred at the service layer. No other type of exception should be thrown by this layer. Different services can create sub-classes of this exception. This way consumers of this service can assume non-ServiceExceptions are fatal errors and not just the result of a database being down or service being unavailable. This exception handling policy is related to checked vs unchecked exceptions. Proper exception handling is one of those topics that most developers ignore because it is such a complex subject.

The DTOs are just plain objects. They are intentionally simple. Customer represents the values that are expected to be returned from the database. It is comprised of public accessor/mutators and doesn't attempt to hide anything. Sometimes it may be useful to implement ICloneable to support copying DTOs.

The ICustomerRepository has methods for interacting with the database. Since this is just an interface, nothing should be exposed regarding whether we're interacting with a database, a service, etc. In this solution, I am creating a repository for each database table. In a different situation, I might create a repository for a particular feature.

Policies

This project is extremely important for making an application configurable. This project, along with Ninject, makes it possible to do aspect-oriented programming (AOP). This allows us to program declaratively to do things like database transactions, exception handling policies, logging and a whole lot more.

AttributeInterceptor is an abstract class. It provides a single method for getting custom attributes from a method. Most policies are declared using attributes. For instance, we might indicate that a method should run within a database transaction by doing something like this:

[Transaction]
public void CreateAccount(AccountDetail details)
{
    // do some work
}

We can configure the system to look for methods with this attribute and decorate them so additional code is run before and/or after the method. In this case, we would create an instance of TransactionScope to create a database transaction.

TransactionInterceptor will start a transaction before executing the method and will commit it if it finishes without throwing an exception. The Transaction attribute can be created with additional arguments for configuring the transaction.

A common operation in a layered architecture is to simply capture exceptions from a lower layer and wrap them with a new exception. This is what ExceptionInterceptor does. The idea is that the cause of the exception can't be handled yet but we don't want to burden higher layers with handling low-level exception types. Allowing certain types of exceptions to bubble up could actually break our abstraction. ExceptionInterceptor will inspect the decorated method for an optional ErrorMessage attribute and use it as the new exception's message.

Other common operations, such as logging, tracing, etc. can be performed in a declarative way.

Just defining some arbitrary classes won't accomplish anything. Take a look at the TestMvcApplication/App_Start/NinjectWebCommon.cs class - it will show how these interceptors are wired up.

Data Modeling

Under the hood, I am using Entity Framework's code-first feature. More or less, Entity Framework will use conventions to "assume" how to map entities (Customer) to database tables. Where it isn't smart enough, I provide a EntityTypeConfiguration object to be explicit. This configuration object is used to synchronize the code's model with the database's model. It is also used when generating the actual SQL. Check out some of the classes found under the DataModel folder and then explore the DataMigration project to see how to manually synchronize and pre-populate a database.

This project contains an implementation for the ICustomerRepository interface. This solution uses Entity Framework with SQL Server to store customer data. When building large systems, it is usually important to hide which underlying data access tools you are using. The Repository pattern achieves this for us nicely. If we decided to move our data layer to a separate service (maybe for load balancing or to be closer to the database), the repository interface will shield most of the code from the change.

In order to implement the ICustomerRepository interface, CustomerRepository accepts an instance of EntitySet. EntitySet is a thin wrapper around a DbContext class, a member of the Entity Framework. This class is configured to allow us to use raw DTOs (or POCOs). Normally, Entity Framework will auto-generate our data objects for us based on the entity model; however, these classes have a lot of additional logic for managing their state internally which in larger systems can lead to EF concerns bleeding into other layers.

The EntitySet class provides access to a collection (IQueryable) of customers. It also provides raw access to the underlying database connection (a SqlConnection in this case) for occasions when you need to circumvent EF. EntitySet implements IDisposable, meaning that it manages the lifetime of the connection to SQL Server. It provides a SaveChanges method for persisting any local changes to the database. This class is also where any convenience methods for the data layer would be found. Take a look at the GetEntities method for an example - a method that makes it possible to map hand-written SQL results to entities in our model.

Although it is not used in this solution, the ConnectionManager is a useful class. It will open a closed connection and automatically close it when it is disposed. If the connection is already open, it simply does nothing. This is useful when working with EF because EF opens and closes connections between operations (but thanks to connection pooling this has no overhead). This class makes sure the connection is always open for hand-written SQL.

I make it really easy to escape the confines of Entity Framework. It is tempting to do everything in terms of EF but that can lead to problems. EF provides its own list of convenience methods for calling stored procedures and even its own dialect of SQL for fine-grain control. However, your system may need to interact with an existing data layer expecting a database connection. Or you may have team members who prefer working directly with ADO.NET. In my experience, almost all of my code could be written using EF and only one out of a hundred SQL needed me to work around it.

Designing a repository can be tricky. Like most classes, creating the wrong interface can leak assumptions about how the repository is implemented. If you inspect the Add, Update and Remove methods, you'll notice that I call SaveChanges. Another option would have been to move the responsibility of calling SaveChanges into a separate class (call it Synchronizer). This way you could make lots of different changes and then force EF to synchronize with the database all at one time. However, that approach has a weakness - if we move away from EF to, say, a web service, clients will assume nothing will happen until we call SaveChanges on the Synchronizer. This means our web service would have to be stateful, which would prevent us from using a pure RESTful interface. As you can see, even little decisions can impact how our code can evolve in the future.

Along the same lines, look at the Update method. It takes two objects - the original object and the updated object. Coming from a background where I worked on many different data layers, this method signature is the most universal. In some systems, I only passed the modified object, assuming that the primary key is unmodified. However, this approach doesn't work in some systems using natural, compound keys. In dynamic languages, particularly when working with no-SQL databases, the modified object can be a dictionary just containing the properties that changed. In this system, EF requires us to first retrieve the object to update, modify it and then save the changes. This means I will receive a copy of the original. How you implement Update will depend on your environment. You may choose to simply pass the primary key to identify the record in the database. You may choose to just pass the updated values. It really depends on your situation. But remember if you ever move your implementation to a different tier, you shouldn't need to modify every piece of code doing an update.

MvcUtilities

This project contains classes that are used by the ASP.NET MVC project. Most of these classes are convenience classes, to save you from repeating the same code in your controllers. Typically, these classes would be in the ASP.NET MVC project, instead of separated out like this. However, keeping them in a separate project will make it easy to reuse these utility classes in another solution. It also seems to help cut down on unanticipated dependencies.

In the MvcUtilities/Binders folder, you'll find different model binders. These are classes that will automate converting query strings, form data, etc. into data objects. My advice is to avoid manually extracting values and use model binding as much as possible. Not only does this cut down on the lines of code, it makes it easier to follow ASP.NET MVC error handling conventions.

The CustomFieldNameModelBinder class allows you to decorate properties with one or more FieldName attributes. The default model binder follows very specific naming conventions to map field names to properties. However, your front-end developers may have naming conventions that you must adhere to. CustomFieldNameModelBinder will search for the corresponding property based on the FieldName attribute. Look at the TestMvcApplication/App_Start/BindingConfig.cs file to see how this is configured with ASP.NET MVC.

The ModelBinderBuilder class is an even more flexible class. In the TestMvcApplication/App_Start/BindingConfig.cs file, you can actually build a model binder on-the-fly specifying how to map between fields and properties. This may be a better approach if you don't want to dirty your view models with lots of attributes. This also comes in handy when your front-end team doesn't have a consistent naming convention (the horror!). Unfortunately, ASP.NET MVC does not provide a way to specify which model binder to use on an action-per-action basis. However, you can easily create a sub-class of IModelBinder that simply delegates to a model binder built using ModelBinderBuilder.

In the MvcUtilities/ActionResults folder, the JsonWithHttpStatusCodeResult demonstrates extending the JsonResult class to send a different HTTP status code. Writing this class is ridiculously easy, but people just repeat the same code throughout their code base anyway.

This project also has a general-purpose exception class CodedException. CodedException holds an HTTP status code. This is used in the MVC project to send meaningful status codes to the UI. This is especially useful when working with JSON and RESTful interfaces. The exceptions that are caught by the UI should inherit from CodedException.

In the MvcUtilities/FilterAttributes folder you'll find some simple filters. HttpStatusCodeErrorHandlerAttribute will respond to exceptions by returning an HTTP status code. This saves you from needing to put try/catch blocks in every controller method, only to return an HttpStatusCodeResult. The RedirectOnErrorAttribute is similar in that it will catch exceptions and send the user to an error screen. If you were writing a client-heavy front-end with JSON end-points, you'll probably use HttpStatusCodeErrorHandlerAttribute. If you're following a more classic approach, RedirectOnErrorAttribute will do the trick. Both of these attributes will capture instances of CodedException and extract the HTTP status code and error message to return.

Adapters

This project represents the layer between the views and the domain/data layer. This code would usually just exist in the ASP.NET MVC project because its main responsibility is converting raw HTTP values (query strings, form data, session variables, etc.) into representations that the domain layer can understand. It is also responsible for converting objects from the domain layer into a representation that the UI can understand (a View Model). In some cases, this code interacts directly with the data layer. In this project, there is no domain layer and so all interactions are with the data layer directly. Because of the translation from and to UI elements and domain elements, I called this project Adapters.

I have broken this code out into its own project because I found that it was difficult to avoid creating interdependencies whenever I started implementing this code in the MVC project. I managed to create dependencies to the HttpContext accidentally more often than I thought I would. If you have two or more MVC projects, say for different devices (desktop, mobile, etc.) you can put the reusable code here. Most projects won't call for a separate project and this code would normally appear as part of the MVC project. Although, I would advise taking steps to reduce the size of you controllers.

The CustomerData class is an example of a view model. It uses Data Annotations so that ASP.NET MVC can automate some of the control rendering and validation. You'll find that I prefer to avoid automatic client-side validation and do it manually using jQuery Validate. However, I prefer automatic server-side validation for certain types of validation. This class also uses the FieldName attribute. The important thing to notice about this class is that it is a dumb DTO again. It's even dumber than Customer because it replaces the Guid with a string. When the view receives a view model, it shouldn't need to do any additional processing, except some basic formatting maybe.

A common mistake I see other developers making is reusing data layer DTOs as view models. In simple applications, there is a one-to-one mapping between DTOs and view models. Because of that, most developers think it is wasteful to duplicate the DTO. This is perfectly fine in some cases, except it can lead to problems further along in the project. Eventually a screen will require some additional information or it will compute a value from the DTO's properties. Instead of creating a raw view model, some developers play tricks like creating view models containing DTOs and/or will perform computations in the view. I recommend keeping DTOs out of your view models and avoiding deep nesting or computation of any kind. Look at Fowler's treatment on Presentaion Models to get a basic overview of this topic.

The CustomerAdapter class is the result of extracting out code from the MVC controller and putting it into its own isolated class. There's also an interface ICustomerAdapter which is needed to apply policies using Ninject. Whether I'd normally create this interface depends on my unit testing strategy.

The CustomerAdapter class is dependent on CustomerRepository. Ninject will pass the repository to the adapter when instantiating it. Most of the methods in the adapter are just pass-throughs to the repository. What you might not realize is that policies are used to add additional code to these methods at runtime. Investigate the TestMvcApplication/App_Start/NinjectWebCommon.cs file to see how these policies are configured.

The CustomerMapper class has two methods for converting between the data objects and the view models. These types of conversions are extremely common. The AutoMapper project is aimed at automating some of these mappings, but I usually just do it manually. Code for mapping between representations usually finds its way into mapper classes. PrimitiveMapper has methods for converting between representations of GUIDs and date/times. In large projects, the primitive mapper can become quite large and the names of the conversion methods can be obscure. However, creating a primitive mapper is a great way to ensure consistency in the way primitives are formatted/parsed.

The CustomerAdapter class is dependent on the ICustomerMapper interface. The constructor actually creates the mapper using new in the constructor. Some developers would be tempted to pass the mapper to the constructor. However, any unit tests would then need to mock out the interface and most of the time the mock object would just perform a mapping - essentially repeating the production logic. This can be useful if you want to verify that the mapper was indeed called, but most of the time this just seems a bit ridiculous. For this reason, I provide a property for setting the mapper instance, but I create a CustomerMapper by default.

One thing to keep in mind is that some view models are extremely complex. While they should be relatively straight-forward for the UI to render, they may still consist of many levels of nested objects. Here things can get a little fuzzy because a considerable amount of business logic can be involved when building view models. Whose responsibility is it to build the view models? Here, I would say that the Adapters classes are responsible for building the view models. Its job then is to probe the data/business layer to get the information it needs to build it. This level of cooperation can be unnerving to some people, but it is far more testable and keeps your domain logic independent of your UI. It makes sense to mock out complex mappers that have a lot of their own dependencies and business logic.

Another option to building large view models is to use ASP.NET MVC's Html.Action and Html.RenderAction to build complex screens out of smaller parts. This is a great solution for decomposing large screens into little, reusable chunks. The only problem is that you can end up grabbing the same data multiple times in some cases.

TestMvcApplication

The actual MVC project is a treasure trove of useful utilities. I wanted to provide an example of how to build an ASP.NET MVC application following the "classic" model and another following a more client-driven approach. The classic model is what you will read about in books and on the Internet about ASP.NET MVC. The more client-driven approach involves using JavaScript and RESTful services to avoid redirecting the user between screens.

The term classic isn't meant to be derogatory. Most web-based business applications can be implemented using the classic approach. It's for web applications that don't need the "wow" effect and consist mostly of form entry. The classic approach is also easier because the tools are built with it in mind. To be clear, ASP.NET MVC also provides tools for doing some fancy client-side processing, but it isn't quite as flexible as grappling with raw JavaScript. The classic code can be executed by navigating to the Classic controller/URL.

The more client-driven approach relies heavily on JavaScript libraries to perform actions on the client's behalf without redirecting them to a dozen different screens. I currently provide implementations that used Knockout.js and AngularJS. Both tools perform data binding and Twitter Bootstrap to control the layout and display modals. Interactions with the server are coordinated using jQuery's AJAX capabilities. I was liberal with my use of JavaScript in this code because I wanted to demonstrate that realistic tasks can be performed with JavaScript without needing to buy third-party control libraries. The Knockout.js code can be executed by navigating to the Knockout controller/URL. The AngularJS code can be executed by navigating to the Angular controller/URL. I should mention that my knowledge Knockout.js and AngularJS is fairly intermediate and a more seasoned developer might do things completely differently.

The reality is that most projects will combine server and client-side techniques. For instance, it might make sense to provide client-heavy UIs for related actions (for instance, CRUD oeprations) and have separate screens for each database table. Tools like CSS3 and jQuery transition effects can aid in replacing jarring screen loads with smooth transitions. My experience is that most users are accustomed to HTML pages reloading between actions. Because both approaches have their place in modern web applications you should spend time looking at each version of this application.

Controllers Should Be Small

Regardless of the examples from your favorite ASP.NET MVC book, your controller methods should be quite small. Most examples I've found do the following in their controllers: perform validation, query repositories, manipulate the session, build view models, do exception handling and much, much more. If your controller methods get much larger than 10 lines of code, you might consider changing your approach. Your controller also shouldn't be littered with a dozen little, private helper methods either. This suggests you are performing business logic in your controllers, which is not where it belongs.

Earlier I mentioned that creating a separate Adapters-like project may be overkill. However, that doesn't necessarily mean you should shove all that code into your controller. The more time you spend inside your controller, the more likely you'll build brittle software. There's nothing wrong with creating a new folder in your MVC project to hold additional code. If you do decide to combine your code with a controller, MVC's Action Filters and custom model binders can keep your controllers fit. I'd still recommend moving view model building off into its own code somewhere.

Know Your ActionResults

MVC uses the really generic ActionResult class to represent the results of a request. There are a lot of built-in ActionResults. I see a lot of developers essentially rewriting existing ActionResult code in their controllers. For instance HttpStatusCodeResult is a simple ActionResult for returning an HTTP status code. However, I see people setting Response.StatusCode all the time (which makes the controller hard to test). I also see actions returning string whenever JSON is being returned. The JsonResult is much better equipped to do this.

With MVC 4, I haven't needed to write many ActionResults. Almost everything I could ever want is already there.

Action Filters Should Make You Happy

If you think writing Policy classes using Ninject is just too bizarre, you'll be glad to know there is something built-in to ASP.NET MVC for achieving pretty much the same thing... but it only works on controllers. ASP.NET MVC was built with enough insight to support AOP out of the gate, via action filters. The cool thing is you can get away with sub-classing an existing filter, so you don't even need to write that much code.

There are a ton of existing filters. You should definitely know about: the Authorize filter; the HttpPost, HttpPut, HttpDelete, etc. filters; the HandlerError filter and the OutputCache filter.

The usefulness of action filter attributes is only limited to your imagination. Here is a list of tasks I implemented using filter attributes:

  • I validated Captchas.
  • I redirected the user to a change password screen when their passwords expired.
  • I required some screens to be HTTPS-only unless working locally.
  • I authorized users against system-managed permissions.
  • I gave user support staff a read-only view of customer information.

Basically, any time more than one action involved the same code, I moved it into a filter attribute. You can apply as many filter attributes to one action as you want, so go crazy.

Bundling

If you have high load, you will want to minify your JavaScript and CSS. In the past, switching between development and release versions of these files was a real pain. With MVC 4, bundling is built-in to make this task simple. There is a decent introduction to bundling on Microsoft's website. Take a look at the TestMvcApplication/App_start/BundleConfig.cs file, the TestMvcApplication/global.asax file and the TestMvcApplication/Views/Shared/_Layout.cshtml file to see this in action.

Gluing Everything Together with Ninject

There is a considerable amount of magic involved in how Ninject configures this system. Manually connecting all the different pieces by hand would be a nightmare. Fortunately, installing Ninject's MVC extension via NuGet automates most of this process. Don't worry if looking at the TestMvcApplication/App_Start/NinjectWebCommon.cs file hurts your brain - it hurts mine too! The only important thing in this file is the TestModule class. In this class we specify how to build our dependencies.

First we specify that we want to create a ContextManager. The ContextManager provides access to our HttpContext, which contains request, response, user, profile, session and cache data. It also provides access to any configuration settings. In this example, I also provide convenience methods for building URLs.

Typically, I would break out ContextManager's responsibilities by creating separate interfaces that it can then be implemented - a case of multiple interface inheritance. In this example, the only code Ninject needs to create a ContextManager is the line: Bind<ContextManager>().ToSelf().InRequestScope();. This line says call the default constructor whenever a ContextManager is first requested and reuse it for the rest of the request. I break ContextManager out into the IUrlHelper, IPrincipalManager, IConfigurationManager and the ILogger interfaces. I tell Ninject to reuse the original ContextManager instance: Bind<IConfigurationManager>().To<ContextManager>();. Ninject is pretty smart and will reuse the same instance.

The EntitySet class is also scoped to a single request. This is important for making sure database connections are not left open. The EntitySet creation is interesting because we need to pass the connection string configuration setting, which comes from the ContextManager we just configured.

The CustomerRepository binding applies a policy for converting raw Exceptions to ServiceExceptions. We then apply two policies to the CustomerAdapter. Ninject allows us to control the order that policies are executed, which is demonstated here. The order that policies take place can be really important. For the same reason, MVC's action filters support a similar feature.

Using Partial Views

When I first started building MVC applications, I repeated myself a lot. It took me a while to start using partial views. Once I did, I became a lot more productive and I suddenly found it a lot easier to switch between the classic approach and the rich-client approach.

Here's one example. Most applications have screens that allow you to create and update a record. Most of the time, these screens are almost identical. Typically, the only differences are the form's action URL, what fields are pre-populated and maybe there's a hidden field for the primary key. Duplicating the HTML, JavaScript and the CSS for these pages would be crazy. Take a look at the TestMvcApplication/Views/Classic/_CustomerDetails.cshtml file and the corresponding Create.cshtml and Edit.cshtml files. You'll see I created my own extension method for optionally setting the value attributes of the controls.

As I mentioned earlier, take a hard look at the Html.Partial, Html.RenderPartial, Html.Action and the Html.RenderAction extension methods. They're extremely useful. They give you the benefits of WebForm's User Controls without all the complexity and overhead.

HTML Helpers Aren't Always Your Friend

Some people might call me crazy, but I tend to limit my use of the Html extension methods. Some good examples of Html extensions methods are BeginForm, EditorFor or any of the other dozen *For methods. Personally, my experience is that these are big time savers in the beginning and slowly become a maintenance issue over time.

Some of the benefits include:

  • consistent HTML generation
  • consistent <input> naming convention
  • usually less typing
  • the use of DataAnnotation attributes to determine which tag to use
  • some limited type safety
  • automatic handling of unchecked check boxes and disabled controls
  • less need to know HTML

Some of the negatives are:

  • the generated HTML may violate existing coding conventions
  • the automatically generated HTML may cause unanticipated layout issues
  • it is harder for non-developers to read and maintain
  • anonymous types (new { @class="error" }) for route data and CSS styles become eye sores
  • it can make it harder to switch to a more client-driven application

You'll find that I still rely on the Url extensions and many of the Html extensions. This saves me from hard-coding URLs in a lot of places. I just don't like entire tags to be created for me. Embrace raw HTML!

Eliminate Hard-Coding with T4MVC

I am using a project called T4MVC. At the start of a project, you will find yourself wanting to rename/move controllers and actions. But methods like Url.Action take strings. It is extremely difficult to go through all your views and controllers and update these strings without missing one or two. T4MVC will actually generate constants and extension methods accepting ActionResults. When you change the names of your controllers and actions, you simply rerun the code generation tool and you'll receive compiler errors everywhere the old name is listed. It's not an ideal refactoring but it is much more safe.

Just a fair warning, I ran into issues using the T4MVC project. Specifically, I created a custom route mapping and somehow this broke the T4MVC code. The trick was to move all custom routes after the default route. You should also be aware that errors in views don't show up when compiling. I usually have to open each view individually to see if I broke anything - although this is more of an issue with Visual Studio than T4MVC.

Unit Testing

It was recommended that I include unit tests. A lot of people aren't quite sure how to test ASP.NET MVC code. Many times is it because they make their code too tightly coupled. Fortunately, this project is designed with testing in mind, so it is fairly easy to test.

Most of these unit tests are fairly simple. Others involve creating stubs and mocks and building up the environment. You might be interested to see how I test policies, the ASP.NET MVC action filters, action results and helpers, as well as the controller actions themselves.

Please Contribute

I'd like to continue improving this project. If you have any awesome code snippets, contribute!