Wrapper of the OpenSSL elliptic curve functions for easy Python manipulation
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pyelliptic
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README.md
__init__.py
asnhelper.py
bignum.py
curve.py
echelper.py
keypair.py
point.py
sample_lsag.py

README.md

Py-EC

A wrapper of the OpenSSL elliptic curve functions for easy Python manipulation.

In Python, dealing directly with the OpenSSL library (through PyElliptic) easily becomes a hassle with the use of C pointers and string buffers.

To make things easier, I decided to make a wrapper for PyElliptic to make the manipulation of elliptic curves and points more Pythonic.

The wrapper has been tested with all recommended SEC curves (secp192k1, secp192r1, secp224k1, secp224r1, secp256k1, secp256r1, secp384r1, secp521r1, sect163k1, sect163r1, sect163r2, sect233k1, sect233r1, sect239k1, sect283k1, sect283r1, sect409k1, sect409r1, sect571k1 and sect571r1).

Especially point addition and multiplication is way easier, as the following console example usage shows:

Example use

>>> from curve import Curve
>>> c = Curve( 'secp256k1' )

>>> c
Curve<Equation: y^2 = x^3+7 (mod p), Field: Prime field, p: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEFFFFFC2F>

>>> c.p
115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007908834671663L

>>> c.a
0

>>> c.b
7

>>> c.order
115792089237316195423570985008687907852837564279074904382605163141518161494337L

>>> c.G
Point<0x79BE667EF9DCBBAC55A06295CE870B07029BFCDB2DCE28D959F2815B16F81798, 0x483ADA7726A3C4655DA4FBFC0E1108A8FD17B448A68554199C47D08FFB10D4B8>

>>> c.G.x
55066263022277343669578718895168534326250603453777594175500187360389116729240L

>>> c.G.y
32670510020758816978083085130507043184471273380659243275938904335757337482424L

>>> 4 * c.G + (255 * c.G)
Point<0xC2C80F844B70599812D625460F60340E3E6F36054A14546E6DC25D47376BEA9B, 0x86CA160D68F4D4E718B495B891D3B1B573B871A702B4CF6123ABD4483AA79C64>

>>> from keypair import KeyPair
>>> kp = KeyPair( c )

>>> kp
KeyPair<Private:0x5091AD80EEE3FB065A6E3FF126A112C4905F8E79566E22396807A55ADE1B5C6F, Public:Point<0x13FCF42341462150B8366F11659E396DF88D19F65D533CEEAC78C9EC6F94B45D, 0x18DDDF6DCA0C097FC0359E680BAED36403D77657ABE7F76E64E1B787D90C485A>>

>>> kp.private_key
36442418189203456142546292588071998273845228785350611568921618467649899682927L

>>> kp.public_key
Point<0x13FCF42341462150B8366F11659E396DF88D19F65D533CEEAC78C9EC6F94B45D, 0x18DDDF6DCA0C097FC0359E680BAED36403D77657ABE7F76E64E1B787D90C485A>

API

Curve

Getting a curve instance

A curve can be initialized in three ways; by its name, id or by a pointer to an OpenSSL EC_GROUP instance:

>>> from curve import Curve

>>> Curve( curvename='secp256k1' )
Curve<Equation: y^2 = x^3+7 (mod p), Field: Prime field, p: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEFFFFFC2F>

>>> Curve( curveid=714 )
Curve<Equation: y^2 = x^3+7 (mod p), Field: Prime field, p: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEFFFFFC2F>

>>> from pyelliptic.openssl import OpenSSL
>>> Curve( openssl_group=OpenSSL.EC_GROUP_new_by_curve_name( 714 ) )
Curve<Equation: y^2 = x^3+7 (mod p), Field: Prime field, p: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEFFFFFC2F>

Properties of a curve

Depending on whether the curve is over a prime field, Fp, or a power-of-2 field, F2m, the curve has slightly different properties:

  • prime_type: Either 'prime' or 'power-of-two'
  • G: The base Point (or generator) of the curve.
  • order: The order of the curve (amount of elements)
  • h: The cofactor of the curve
  • a: The curve coefficient a
  • b: The curve coefficient b
  • p (Only Fp): The prime p specifying the field
  • m (Only F2m): The integer m specifying the field
  • poly_coeffs (Only F2m): The degrees of the polynomials specifying the field
  • os_group: A pointer to the underlying EC_GROUP instance.
>>> from curve import Curve
>>> c1 = Curve( 'secp256k1' )
>>> c2 = Curve( 'sect239k1' )

>>> c1
Curve<Equation: y^2 = x^3+7 (mod p), Field: Prime field, p: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEFFFFFC2F>
>>> c2
Curve<Equation: y^2+xy = x^3+1, Field: Power-of-two field, f(x): x^239+x^158+1>

>>> c1.field_type
'prime'
>>> c2.field_type
'power-of-two'

>>> c1.G
Point<0x79BE667EF9DCBBAC55A06295CE870B07029BFCDB2DCE28D959F2815B16F81798, 0x483ADA7726A3C4655DA4FBFC0E1108A8FD17B448A68554199C47D08FFB10D4B8>
>>> c2.G
Point<0x29A0B6A887A983E9730988A68727A8B2D126C44CC2CC7B2A6555193035DC, 0x76310804F12E549BDB011C103089E73510ACB275FC312A5DC6B76553F0CA>

>>> c1.order
115792089237316195423570985008687907852837564279074904382605163141518161494337L
>>> c1.h
1
>>> c1.a
0
>>> c1.b
7

>>> c1.p
115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007908834671663L

>>> c2.m
239
>>> c2.poly_coeffs
[158]

Point

Getting a point instance

You can get the base point from the G property of a curve as described above:

>>> from curve import Curve
>>> Curve( 'secp256k1' ).G
Point<0x79BE667EF9DCBBAC55A06295CE870B07029BFCDB2DCE28D959F2815B16F81798, 0x483ADA7726A3C4655DA4FBFC0E1108A8FD17B448A68554199C47D08FFB10D4B8>

You can also create a point on a curve from either (1) the x and y coordinates of the point or (2) by a pointer to an OpenSSL EC_POINT instance:

>>> from curve import Curve
>>> from point import Point
>>> c = Curve( 'secp256k1' )

>>> Point( c, x=255, y=255 ) # Invalid coordinates, only a demonstration
Point<0xFF, 0xFF>

>>> from pyelliptic.openssl import OpenSSL
>>> Point( c, openssl_point=OpenSSL.EC_POINT_new( c.os_group ) )
Point<0x0, 0x0>

Finally, you can hash a string directly onto a curve (using the 'try-and-increment' method for finding points close to a certain x coordinate):

>>> from curve import Curve
>>> c = Curve( 'secp256k1' )

>>> c.hash_to_point( 'somestring' )
Point<0xE4998BB769D5AF19526738527E13ECF753F5CC7AA60DD0ADF94BB0A248CF577A, 0x79FCD45DD59999C5D916FB31C0F023B4A1A1BCD63F11FD3D3E31D5C5E7D79C1D>

>>> c.hash_to_point( 'someotherstring' )
Point<0xB661EE62474532EF1C8EA78B1CE3634E2EEC06B8E256E46A5CE25DF0FFABF332, 0x1DAB745A01B745CA9BF276D8E990E8EF11CFA954C5956DF9BF4C0684FABB00A6>

Performing arithmetics

Point addition and multiplication is intuitive:

>>> from curve import Curve
>>> c = Curve( 'secp256k1' )

>>> c.G
Point<0x79BE667EF9DCBBAC55A06295CE870B07029BFCDB2DCE28D959F2815B16F81798, 0x483ADA7726A3C4655DA4FBFC0E1108A8FD17B448A68554199C47D08FFB10D4B8>

>>> 2 * c.G
Point<0xC6047F9441ED7D6D3045406E95C07CD85C778E4B8CEF3CA7ABAC09B95C709EE5, 0x1AE168FEA63DC339A3C58419466CEAEEF7F632653266D0E1236431A950CFE52A>

>>> c.G + c.G
Point<0xC6047F9441ED7D6D3045406E95C07CD85C778E4B8CEF3CA7ABAC09B95C709EE5, 0x1AE168FEA63DC339A3C58419466CEAEEF7F632653266D0E1236431A950CFE52A>

>>> ( 5 * c.G ) + ( 256 * c.G )
Point<0x9CF606744CF4B5F3FDF989D3F19FB2652D00CFE1D5FCD692A323CE11A28E7553, 0x8147CBF7B973FCC15B57B6A3CFAD6863EDD0F30E3C45B85DC300C513C247759D>

Properties of a point

  • x: The x coordinate
  • y: The y coordinate
  • os_point: A pointer to the underlying EC_POINT instance.

Key pair

A key pair is a structure that contains a private and a public key for a given curve.

Getting a key pair instance

A key pair for a curve can be generated randomly or by providing a private key:

>>> from curve import Curve
>>> from keypair import KeyPair
>>> c = Curve( 'secp256k1' )

>>> KeyPair( c ) # Random key pair
KeyPair<Private:0x94087552C3C72CC867E555854B9DD6392A611A40C168B0C6B7AEFC63DD9F5818, Public:Point<0x7C3FF4B9AE4D4EFCD22185F5ED7B6C8EF79CFF83AC0A3DFA4A258CDDBFC2AC3E, 0xEBFD9904CB8398524022BCDC268D6B03207737F35E7591EE5ACEE338D5272733>>

>>> KeyPair( c, private_key=12345 )
KeyPair<Private:0x3039, Public:Point<0xF01D6B9018AB421DD410404CB869072065522BF85734008F105CF385A023A80F, 0xEBA29D0F0C5408ED681984DC525982ABEFCCD9F7FF01DD26DA4999CF3F6A295>>

Alternatively, you can provide a pointer to an OpenSSL EC_KEY instance:

>>> from curve import Curve
>>> from keypair import KeyPair
>>> from pyelliptic.openssl import OpenSSL
>>> c = Curve( 'secp256k1' )
>>> k = OpenSSL.EC_KEY_new_by_curve_name( 714 )
>>> OpenSSL.EC_KEY_generate_key( k )
1

>>> KeyPair( c, os_key=k )
KeyPair<Private:0xECBCB11DB69B0A8876986571E336A4F486E7B2C355712D2FA32C9836A153AAA, Public:Point<0x732F6911AC325F41CEAB478D4D5AE3EB033A06EA8ECC03AF58CF2FF022A1FE
5, 0x156B3C906BB70070B946F8565C425FEA00EA3350A71073F5B4818C96D41610C6>>

Properties of a key pair

  • private_key: The private key (an integer)
  • public_key: The public key (a Point)
  • os_key: A pointer to the underlying EC_KEY instance.