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Mockito for Objective-C: creation, verification and stubbing of mock objects
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Build Status Coverage Status Cocoapods Version

OCMockito is an iOS and Mac OS X implementation of Mockito, supporting creation, verification and stubbing of mock objects.

Key differences from other mocking frameworks:

  • Mock objects are always "nice," recording their calls instead of throwing exceptions about unspecified invocations. This makes tests less fragile.

  • No expect-run-verify, making tests more readable. Mock objects record their calls, then you verify the methods you want.

  • Verification failures are reported as unit test failures, identifying specific lines instead of throwing exceptions. This makes it easier to identify failures.

How do I add OCMockito to my project?

The Examples folder shows projects using OCMockito either through CocoaPods or through the prebuilt frameworks, for iOS and Mac OS X development.


If you want to add OCMockito using Cocoapods then add the following dependency to your Podfile. Most people will want OCMockito in their test targets, and not include any pods from their main targets:

target :MyTests, :exclusive => true do
  pod 'OCMockito', '~> 1.0'

Use the following imports:

#import <OCHamcrest/OCHamcrest.h>
#import <OCMockito/OCMockito.h>

Note: If you want to use the latest pre-release changes, use

target :MyTests, :exclusive => true do
  pod 'OCMockito', :git => ''

Prebuilt Frameworks

Prebuilt binaries are available on GitHub for OCMockito. You will also need OCHamcrest. The binaries are packaged as frameworks:

  • OCMockitoIOS.framework for iOS development
  • OCMockito.framework for Mac OS X development

OCHamcrest comes in a similar scheme. Drag the appropriate frameworks for both both OCMockito and OCHamcrest into your project, specifying "Copy items into destination group's folder". Then specify -ObjC in your "Other Linker Flags".

iOS Development:

Use the following imports:

#import <OCHamcrestIOS/OCHamcrestIOS.h>
#import <OCMockitoIOS/OCMockitoIOS.h>

Mac OS X Development:

Add a "Copy Files" build phase to copy OCMockito.framework and OCHamcrest.framework to your Products Directory.

Use the following imports:

#import <OCHamcrest/OCHamcrest.h>
#import <OCMockito/OCMockito.h>

Build Your Own

If you want to build OCMockito yourself, clone the repo, then

$ Frameworks/gethamcrest
$ cd Source
$ ./

Xcode 5 confused by verify:

Xcode 5 currently seems to get confused about #defines, and may complain "Ambiguous expansion of macro 'verify'". If this happens, change your Build Settings to set "Enable Modules" to No.

Let's verify some behavior!

// mock creation
NSMutableArray *mockArray = mock([NSMutableArray class]);

// using mock object
[mockArray addObject:@"one"];
[mockArray removeAllObjects];

// verification
[verify(mockArray) addObject:@"one"];
[verify(mockArray) removeAllObjects];

Once created, the mock will remember all interactions. Then you can selectively verify whatever interactions you are interested in.

(If Xcode complains about multiple methods with the same name, cast verify to the mocked class.)

How about some stubbing?

// mock creation
NSArray *mockArray = mock([NSArray class]);

// stubbing
[given([mockArray objectAtIndex:0]) willReturn:@"first"];
[given([mockArray objectAtIndex:1]) willThrow:[NSException exceptionWithName:@"name"

// following prints "first"
NSLog(@"%@", [mockArray objectAtIndex:0]);

// follows throws exception
NSLog(@"%@", [mockArray objectAtIndex:1]);

// following prints "(null)" because objectAtIndex:999 was not stubbed
NSLog(@"%@", [mockArray objectAtIndex:999]);

How do you mock a class object?

__strong Class mockStringClass = mockClass([NSString class]);

(In the iOS 64-bit runtime, Class objects aren't strong by default. Either make it explicitly strong as shown above, or use id instead.)

How do you mock a protocol?

id <MyDelegate> delegate = mockProtocol(@protocol(MyDelegate));

Or, if you don't want it to contain any optional methods:

id <MyDelegate> delegate = mockProtocolWithoutOptionals(@protocol(MyDelegate));

How do you mock an object that also implements a protocol?

UIViewController <CustomProtocol> *controller =
    mockObjectAndProtocol([UIViewController class], @protocol(CustomProtocol));

How do you stub methods that return primitives?

To stub methods that return primitive scalars, box the scalars into NSValues:

[given([mockArray count]) willReturn:@3];

How do you stub methods that return structs?

Use willReturnStruct:objCType: passing a pointer to your structure and its type from the Objective-C @encode() compiler directive:

SomeStruct aStruct = {...};
[given([mockObject methodReturningStruct]) willReturnStruct:&aStruct

How do you stub a property so that KVO works?

Use stubProperty(instance, property, value). For example:

stubProperty(mockEmployee, firstName, @"fake-firstname");

Argument matchers

OCMockito verifies argument values by testing for equality. But when extra flexibility is required, you can specify OCHamcrest matchers.

// mock creation
NSMutableArray *mockArray = mock([NSMutableArray class]);

// using mock object
[mockArray removeObject:@"This is a test"];

// verification
[verify(mockArray) removeObject:startsWith(@"This is")];

OCHamcrest matchers can be specified as arguments for both verification and stubbing.

Typed arguments will issue a warning that the matcher is the wrong type. Just cast the matcher to id.

How do you specify matchers for non-object arguments?

To stub a method that takes a non-object argument but specify a matcher, invoke the method with a dummy argument, then call -withMatcher:forArgument:

[[given([mockArray objectAtIndex:0]) withMatcher:anything() forArgument:0]

Use the shortcut -withMatcher: to specify a matcher for a single argument:

[[given([mockArray objectAtIndex:0]) withMatcher:anything()]

These methods are also available to specify matchers for verification. Just call them after verify(…) but before the invocation you want to verify:

[[verify(mockArray) withMatcher:greaterThan(@5])] removeObjectAtIndex:0];

Verifying exact number of invocations / at least x / never

// using mock
[mockArray addObject:@"once"];

[mockArray addObject:@"twice"];
[mockArray addObject:@"twice"];

// the following two verifications work exactly the same
[verify(mockArray) addObject:@"once"];
[verifyCount(mockArray, times(1)) addObject:@"once"];

// verify exact number of invocations
[verifyCount(mockArray, times(2)) addObject:@"twice"];
[verifyCount(mockArray, times(3)) addObject:@"three times"];

// verify using never(), which is an alias for times(0)
[verifyCount(mockArray, never()) addObject:@"never happened"];

// verify using atLeast()/atMost()
[verifyCount(mockArray, atLeastOnce()) addObject:@"at least once"];
[verifyCount(mockArray, atLeast(2)) addObject:@"at least twice"];
[verifyCount(mockArray, atMost(5)) addObject:@"at most five times"];

Capturing arguments for further assertions

OCMockito verifies argument values using OCHamcrest matchers; non-matcher arguments are implicitly wrapped in the equalTo matcher to test for equality. In some situations though, it's helpful to capture an argument so you can send it another message.

OCHamcrest provides a special matcher for this purpose: HCArgumentCaptor. Specify it as an argument, then query it with either the value or allValues properties.

For example, you may want to send the captured argument a message to query its state:

HCArgumentCaptor *argument = [[HCArgumentCaptor alloc] init];
[verify(mockObject) doSomething:(id)argument];
assertThat([argument.value nameAtIndex:0], is(@"Jon"));

Capturing arguments is especially handy for block arguments. Capture the argument, cast it to the block type, then invoke the block directly to simulate the ways it will be called by production code:

HCArgumentCaptor *argument = [[HCArgumentCaptor alloc] init];
[verify(mockArray) sortUsingComparator:(id)argument];
NSComparator block = argument.value;
assertThat(@(block(@"a", @"z")), is(@(NSOrderedAscending)));

Stubbing consecutive calls

[[given([mockObject someMethod:@"some arg"])
    willThrow:[NSException exceptionWithName:@"name" reason:@"reason" userInfo:nil]]

// First call: throws exception
[mockObject someMethod:@"some arg"];

// Second call: prints "foo"
NSLog(@"%@", [mockObject someMethod:@"some arg"]);

// Any consecutive call: prints "foo" as well. (Last stubbing wins.)
NSLog(@"%@", [mockObject someMethod:@"some arg"]);

Stubbing with blocks

We recommend using simple stubbing with willReturn: or willThrow: only. But willDo: using a block can sometimes be helpful. The block can easily access invocation arguments by calling mkt_arguments from NSInvocation+OCMockito.h. Whatever the block returns will be used as the stubbed return value.

[[given([mockObject someMethod:anything()]) willDo:^id (NSInvocation *invocation){
    NSArray *args = [invocation mkt_arguments];
    return @([args[0] intValue] * 2);

// Following prints 4
NSLog(@"%@", [mockObject someMethod:@2]);

You can stub a void method with a block by using givenVoid instead of given.

Problems with dealloc

Use stopMocking(…) if a -dealloc of your System Under Test is trying to message an object that is mocked. It disables message handling on the mock and frees its retained arguments. This prevents retain cycles and crashes during test clean-up. See StopMockingTests.m for an example.

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