Command line options parser, that will make you smile.
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docopt – command line option parser, that will make you smile

Help porting docopt to Ruby!

Isn't it awesome how optparse and other option parsers generate help and usage-messages based on your code?!

Hell no! You know what's awesome? It's when the option parser is generated based on the help and usage-message that you write in a docstring! This way you don't need to write this stupid repeatable parser-code, and instead can write a beautiful usage-message (the way you want it!), which adds readability to your code.

Now you can write an awesome, readable, clean, DRY code like that:

doc = "Usage: example.rb [options] <arguments>...

  -h --help            show this help message and exit
  --version            show version and exit
  -v --verbose         print status messages
  -q --quiet           report only file names
  -r --repeat          show all occurrences of the same error
  --exclude=patterns   exclude files or directories which match these comma
                       separated patterns [default: .svn,CVS,.bzr,.hg,.git]
  --filename=patterns  when parsing directories, only check filenames matching
                       these comma separated patterns [default: *.rb]
  --select=errors      select errors and warnings (e.g. E,W6)
  --ignore=errors      skip errors and warnings (e.g. E4,W)
  --show-source        show source code for each error
  --statistics         count errors and warnings
  --count              print total number of errors and warnings to standard
                       error and set exit code to 1 if total is not null
  --benchmark          measure processing speed
  --testsuite=dir      run regression tests from dir
  --doctest            run doctest on myself"

require 'docopt'

if __FILE__ == $0
    options = Docopt(doc, '1.0.0')  # parse options based on doc above
    puts options.inspect
    puts ARGV.inspect

Hell yeah! The option parser is generated based on doc string above, that you pass to the Docopt function.

API require 'docopt'

###options = Docopt(doc, version=nil, help=true)

Docopt takes 1 required and 2 optional arguments:

  • doc should be a string that describes options in a human-readable format, that will be parsed to create the option parser. The simple rules of how to write such a docstring (in order to generate option parser from it successfully) are given in the next section. Here is a quick example of such a string:

      Usage: your_program.rb [options]
      -h --help     Show this.
      -v --verbose  Print more text.
      --quiet       Print less text.
      -o FILE       Specify output file [default: ./test.txt].
  • help, by default true, specifies whether the parser should automatically print the usage-message (supplied as doc) in case -h or --help options are encountered. After showing the usage-message, the program will terminate. If you want to handle -h or --help options manually (as all other options), set help=false.

  • version, by default nil, is an optional argument that specifies the version of your program. If supplied, then, if the parser encounters --version option, it will print the supplied version and terminate. version could be any printable object, but most likely a string, e.g. '2.1.0rc1'.

Note, when docopt is set to automatically handle -h, --help and --version options, you still need to mention them in the options description (doc) for your users to know about them.

The return value is an instance of the Docopt class:

doc = "Options:
  -o FILE  Output file [default: out.txt]"
options = Docopt(doc)

puts options.inspect
# --verbose=nil
# -o="out.txt"

You can access the values of options like a hash:

doc = "Options:
  -v, --verbose  Verbose output [default: true]
  -o FILE  Output file [default: out.txt]"
options = Docopt(doc)

# The following are equivilant:

puts options['-v']
puts options['--verbose']
puts options[:v]
puts options[:verbose]

You can access positional arguments in ARGV.

doc string format for your usage-message

The main idea behind docopt is that a good usage-message (that describes options and defaults unambiguously) is enough to generate an option parser.

Here are the simple rules (that you probably already follow) for your usage-message to be parsable:

  • Every line that starts with - or -- (not counting spaces) is treated as an option description, e.g.:

        --verbose   # GOOD
        -o FILE     # GOOD
      Other: --bad  # BAD, line does not start with dash "-"
  • To specify that an option has an argument, put a word describing that argument after space (or equals = sign) as shown below. You can use comma if you want to separate options. In the example below both lines are valid, however you are recommended to stick to a single style.

      -o FILE --output=FILE       # without comma, with "=" sign
      -i <file>, --input <file>   # with comma, wihtout "=" sing
  • Use two spaces to separate options with their informal description.

      --verbose More text.   # BAD, will be treated as if verbose option had
                             # an argument "More", so use 2 spaces instead
      -q        Quit.        # GOOD
      -o FILE   Output file. # GOOD
      --stdout  Use stdout.  # GOOD, 2 spaces
  • If you want to set a default value for an option with an argument, put it into the option description, in form [default: <my-default-value>].

      -i INSTANCE      Instance of something [default: 1]
      --coefficient=K  The K coefficient [default: 2.95]
      --output=FILE    Output file [default: test.txt]
      --directory=DIR  Some directory [default: ./]

Something missing? Help porting docopt to Ruby!

Compatibility notice:

In order to maintain your program's compatibility with future versions of docopt.rb (as porting more features continues) you are recommended to keep the following in the begining of doc argument:

Usage: my_program.rb [options] <arguments>...


Usage: my_program.rb [options] <argument>


Usage: my_program.rb [options]

(followed by an empty line), where you are free to change my_program.rb and argument(s) name inside of <...>.