ZFS Snapshot Manager
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ZFS Snapshot Manager


All scripts are in the scripts folder. By executing manager.py, it deamonizes itself.


  • Configuration is stored in single configuration file with the ini file format
  • Triggers the configured actions based on time or a '.trigger' file present in the dataset's mountpoint.
  • Can take snapshots (with a yyyymmdd timestamp format)
  • Can replicate snapshots to/from other nodes
    • Push based when the replication source has access to the replication target
    • Pull based when the replication source has no access to the replication target. Typically when you don't want to give all nodes access to the backup/replication target
  • Cleans all snapshots with the yyyymmdd timestamp format based on a GFS schema (Grandfather, Father, Son).
  • Supports pre and post commands
    • Pre command is executed before any action is executed
    • Post command is executed after the actions are executed, but before cleaning


The main configuration file is located in /etc and is called zfssnapmanager.cfg. It's an ini file containing a section per dataset/volume that needs to be managed.


mountpoint = /
time = 21:00
snapshot = True
replicate_endpoint = ssh -p 2345 my.remote.server.org
replicate_target = zpool/backups/zroot
schema = 7d3w11m5y
compression = gzip

mountpoint = /mnt/data
time = trigger
snapshot = True
schema = 5d0w0m0y
preexec = echo "starting" | mail somebody@example.com
postexec = echo "finished" | mail somebody@exampe.com

mountpoint = None
time = 21:00
snapshot = True
schema = 7d3w0m0y

mountpoint = /mnt/backups/data
time = 23:00
snapshot = False
replicate_endpoint = ssh other.remote.server.org
replicate_source = zpool/data
schema = 7d3w11m4y

A summary of the different options:

  • mountpoint: Points to the location to which the dataset is mounted, None for volumes
  • time: Can be either a timestamp in 24h notation after which a snapshot needs to be taken. It can also be 'trigger' indicating that it will take a snapshot as soon as a file with name '.trigger' is found in the dataset's mountpoint. This can be used in case data is for example rsynced to the dataset.
  • snapshot: Indicates whether a snapshot should be taken or not. It might be possible that only cleaning needs to be executed if this dataset is actually a replication target for another machine.
  • replicate_endpoint: Can be left empty if replicating on localhost (e.g. copying snapshots to other pool). Should be omitted if no replication is required.
  • replicate_target: The target to which the snapshots should be send. Should be omitted if no replication is required or a replication_source is specified.
  • replicate_source: The source from which to pull the snapshots to receive onto the local dataset. Should be omitted if no replication is required or a replication_target is specified.
  • compression: Indicates the compression program to pipe remote replicated snapshots through (for use in low-bandwidth setups.) The compression utility should accept standard compression flags (-c for standard output, -d for decompress.)
  • schema: In case the snapshots should be cleaned, this is the schema the manager will use to clean.
  • preexec: A command that will be executed, before snapshot/replication. Should be omitted if nothing should be executed
  • postexec: A command that will be executed, after snapshot/replication, but before the cleanup. Should be omitted if nothing should be executed

Naming convention

This script's snapshot will always given a timestamp (format yyyymmdd) as name. For pool/tank an example snapshot name could be pool/tank@20131231

All snapshots are currently used for replication (both snapshots taken by the script as well as snapshots taken by other means (other scripts or manually), regardless of their name.

However, the script will only clean snapshots with the timestamp naming convention. In case you don't want a snapshot to be cleaned by the script, just make sure it has any other name, not matching this convention.


The system will use "buckets" to apply the GFS schema. From every bucket, the oldest snapshot will be kept. At any given time the script is executed, it will place the snapshots in their buckets, and then clean out all buckets.

Bucket schema

For example, the schema '7d3w11m4y' means:

  • 7 daily buckets (starting from today)
  • 3 weekly buckets (7 days a week)
  • 11 monthly buckets (28 days a month)
  • 4 yearly buckets (12 * 28 days a year)

This wraps up to 5 years (where a year is 12 * 28 days - so not mapping to a real year)

Other schema's are possible. One could for example only be intrested in keeping only the snapshots for last week, in which the schema '7d0w0m0y' would be given. Any combination is possible.

Since from each bucket, the oldest snapshot is kept, snapshots will seem to "roll" trough the buckets.


The examples directory contains 3 example configuration files, almost identical as my own 'production' setup.

  • A non-ZFS device (router), rsyncing its filesystem to an NFS shared dataset.
  • A laptop, having a single root ZFS setup, containing 2 normal filesystems and a ZFS dataset
  • A local NAS with lots of data and the replication target of most systems
  • A remote NAS (used as normal NAS by these people) used with two-way replication as offsite backup setup.


This python program/script has a few dependencies. When using the Archlinux AUR, these will be installed automatically.

  • zfs
  • python2
  • openssh
  • mbuffer
  • python2-daemon


The script is logging into /var/log/zfs-snap-manager.log


This program/script is licensed under MIT, which basically means you can do anything you want with it. You can find the license text in the 'LICENSE' file.

If you like the software or if you're using it, feel free to leave a star as a toke of appreciation.


As with any script deleting snapshots, use with caution. Make sure to test the script on a dummy dataset first when you use it directly from the repo. This to ensure no unexpected things will happen.

The releases should be working fine, as I use these on my own environment.

In case you find a bug, feel free to create a bugreport and/or fork and send a pull-request in case you fixed the bug yourself.


ZFS Snapshot Manager is available in the following distributions:


From Wikipedia:

ZFS is a combined file system and logical volume manager designed by Sun Microsystems.
The features of ZFS include protection against data corruption, support for high storage capacities,
efficient data compression, integration of the concepts of filesystem and volume management, snapshots
and copy-on-write clones, continuous integrity checking and automatic repair, RAID-Z and native NFSv4 ACLs.

ZFS was originally implemented as open-source software, licensed under the Common Development and
Distribution License (CDDL). The ZFS name is registered as a trademark of Oracle Corporation.

ZFS Snapshot Manager is a standalone project, and is not affiliated with ZFS or Oracle Corporation.