Caffe for Object Detection | SqueezeDet
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Caffe for Object Detection

  • This fork of Caffe contains code to train Deep Learning models for the task of object detection.
  • Major contribution in this fork include implementation of two layers specific to object detection.
  • Layer 1 being bbox_data_layer which reads in images as well as their corresponding annotations.
  • Layer 2 being squeezedet_loss_layer which implements the core of Object Detection loss function.

Loss function is the implementation of this paper:

For more details pertaining to the loss function, refer this blog post

Weights and Deploy Scripts

In the directory proto, you can find all the files necessary for running the models.

Model Testing

For details on setting the variables for test phase in proto/SqueezeDet_train_test.prototxt, have a look at the protobuf message for bbox_data_layer.

./caffe test -model <deploy-prototxt> -weights <weights-file>
  • For <deploy-prototxt>, use the proto/SqueezeDet_train_test.prototxt
  • For <weights-file>, use the proto/SqueezeDet.caffemodel

Installation of Caffe

git clone
cd caffe
git checkout obj_detect_loss

Build caffe as usual now. Instructions

Training your own models

Dataset Preparation

  • Create the annotation file (<image_name>.txt) for each image in the training dataset
  • Each annotation should contain information related to the objects present in that image
  • Each annotation file should contain the following information for each object in the image:
    • xmin ymin xmax ymax class-idx
    • Here, xmin, ymin are the co-ordinates of the top left corner of the rectangle of bounding box
    • And, xmax, ymax are the co-ordinates of the bottom right corner of the rectangle of bounding box
    • class-idx is the class index to which the object within bounding box belongs to. (Indexing starts from 0)
  • If an image contains more than one object, then the corresponding annotation file looks like:
    • <xmin_1> <ymin_1> <xmax_1> <ymax_1> <class_idx_1> <xmin_2> <ymin_2> <xmax_2> <ymax_2> <class_idx_2> ...
  • Example: If image file is 2011_000090.jpg and contains one object with co-ordinates 34 45 234 215 and belongs to class 0, the corresponding annotation file should be, 2011_000090.txt with contents, 34 45 234 215 0

Implementation of Layer 'BboxData'

  • This is the layer which reads the images and corresponding annotations to train the model
  • Important variables to be set: source and root_folder.
  • Each line in the source file should contain 2 values, <path-to-image> <path-to-annotation>
  • You can either provide absolute path or relative path in the source file.
  • If providing relative path, set the variable root_folder accordingly
  • Hierarchy of Dataset
               - Images/
                      - image_0.jpg
                      - image_1.jpg
                      - image_2.jpg
                      - ...
               - Annotations/
                      - image_0.txt
                      - image_1.txt
                      - image_2.txt
                      - ...
  • Example:
    layer {
       name: "data"
       type: "BboxData"
       top: "data"
       top: "bbox"
       bbox_data_param {
         source: '/home/user123/source.txt'
         batch_size: 2
         is_color: true
         shuffle: true
       include {
         phase: TRAIN
  • This layer outputs two blobs,
    • blob data which contains image pixel values
    • blob bbox which contains the bounding box information, used as input blob to loss layer

Implementation of the layers required for 'SqueezeDetLoss' loss layer

  • Assuming that you have either read the paper or the blog, let's proceed
  • Let's assume that the ConvDet layer name is conv_xx.
  • Shape of conv_xx : [N, C, H, W]
    • N : Batch size
    • C : Depth of feature map
    • H : Height of feature map of ConvDet layer
    • W : Width of feature map of ConvDet layer
    • Example :
      layer {
         name: "conv_xx"
         type: "Convolution"
         bottom: "bottom_layer"
         top: "conv_xx"
         convolution_param {
            num_output: <out_kernels>
            kernel_size: 3
            stride: 1
            weight_filler {
              type: "gaussian"
              mean: 0.0
              std: 0.0001
            bias_filler {
              type: "constant"
              value: 0.01
  • Step 1: Caffe by default orders the data of a blob in the format [N, C, H, W]. We permute the top blob of conv_xx layer to get a new blob of shape: [N, H, W, C]
    • Example :
      layer {
        name: "permute"
        type: "Permute"
        bottom: "conv_xx"
        top: "permute_conv_xx"
        permute_param {
          order: 0 # N
          order: 2 # H
          order: 3 # W
          order: 1 # C
  • Step 2: Slice the top blob of permute layer along last axis to produce three blobs
    • 1st Slice, Name : slice_0, Shape : [N, H, W, C0]
    • 2nd Slice, Name : slice_1, Shape : [N, H, W, C1]
    • 3rd Slice, Name : slice_2, Shape : [N, H, W, C2]
    • With N, H, W having their usual meanings, K being number of anchors per grid, num_class being the number of classes.
    • C0 = num_class * K
    • C1 = K
    • C2 = 4 * K
    • Example :
      layer {
        name: "slice"
        type: "Slice"
        bottom: "permute_conv_xx"
        top: "slice_0"
        top: "slice_1"
        top: "slice_2"
        slice_param {
          axis: 3
          slice_point: `C0`
          slice_point: `C1`
          slice_point: `C2`
  • Step 3: Reshape slice_0 from [N, H, W, C0] to [N, X, Y] producing the top blob reshape_slice_0
    • X = K * H * W
    • Y = num_class
    • Example :
      layer {
        name: "reshape"
        type: "Reshape"
        bottom: "slice_0"
        top: "reshape_slice_0"
        reshape_param {
          shape {
            dim: 0
            dim: `X`
            dim: `Y`
  • Step 4: Apply softmax to the output of reshape layer
    • Be careful with the axis along which softmax is applied, it's NOT the default axis.
    • Example :
      layer {
        name: "softmax"
        type: "Softmax"
        bottom: "reshape_slice_0"
        top: "soft_reshape_slice_0"
        softmax_param {
          axis: 2
  • Step 5: Apply sigmoid activation to the blob slice_1 of slice layer
    • Example :
      layer {
        name: "sigmoid"
        type: "Sigmoid"
        bottom: "slice_1"
        top: "sig_slice_1"

Implementation of Layer 'SqueezeDetLoss'

  • This layer takes in 4 blobs as input and produces a single output blob which contains loss.
  • The 4 blobs in order are as follows:
    • soft_reshape_slice_0
    • sig_slice_1
    • slice_2
    • bbox
  • Set the parameters for squeezedet_param
  • Example (Network trained as part of GSoC) :
    layer {
       name: "loss"
       type: "SqueezeDetLoss"
       bottom: "soft_reshape_slice_0"
       bottom: "sig_slice_1"
       bottom: "slice_2"
       bottom: "bbox"
       top: "loss"
       squeezedet_param {
          engine: CAFFE
          classes: 20
          anchors_per_grid: 9
          anchor_shapes: 377
          anchor_shapes: 371
          anchor_shapes: 64
          anchor_shapes: 118
          anchor_shapes: 129
          anchor_shapes: 326
          anchor_shapes: 172
          anchor_shapes: 126
          anchor_shapes: 34
          anchor_shapes: 46
          anchor_shapes: 353
          anchor_shapes: 204
          anchor_shapes: 89
          anchor_shapes: 214
          anchor_shapes: 249
          anchor_shapes: 361
          anchor_shapes: 209
          anchor_shapes: 239
          pos_conf: 75
          neg_conf: 100
          lambda_bbox: 5
          lambda_conf: 1

That's it. Start the training by

cd caffe/build/tools
./caffe train \
-solver <solver-file> \
-gpu 0

Results from Training (as part of GSoC)

Original Image Probability : 84.52%
Image_0 Detection_0
Original Image Probability : 70.18%
Image_0 Detection_0
Original Image Probability : 70.35%
Image_0 Detection_0
Original Image Probability : 74.51%
Image_0 Detection_0
Original Image Probability : 73.73% & 72.03%
Image_0 Detection_0
Original Image Probability : Boat(53.43%) & Person(53.04%)
Image_0 Detection_0

I'm exaggerating here. Hmmmm..... I myself couldn't recognize that there was a person out there on the deck !

Original Image Probability : Horse(74.26%) & Person(96.26%)
Image_0 Detection_0


Original Image Probability : 74.12%
Image_0 Detection_0
Original Image Probability : Train(69.65%) & Person(69.47%)
Image_0 Detection_0