A totally unofficial Ruby coding style guide
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README.md

README.md

Abstract

... nearly everybody is convinced that every style but their own is
ugly and unreadable. Leave out the "but their own" and they're
probably right...
--Jerry Coffin (on indentation)

This document was created when I, as the Technical Lead of the company in which I work for, was asked by the CTO to create some internal documents describing good style and best practices for Ruby programming. I started off by building upon this existing style guide, since I concurred with most of the points in it. I hope it will be useful to other people as well and I hope that I'll get a lot of feedback and suggestions on how to improve the guide for the benefit of the entire Ruby community.

Formatting

  • Use UTF-8 as the source file encoding.
  • Use two space indent, no tabs. (Your editor/IDE should have a setting to help you with that.)
  • Use Unix-style line endings. (Linux/OSX users are covered by default, Windows users have to be extra careful.)
    • If you're using Git you might want to do $ git config --global core.autocrlf true to protect your project from Windows line endings creeping into your project.
  • Use spaces around operators, after commas, colons and semicolons, around { and before }.

      sum = 1 + 2
      a, b = 1, 2
      1 > 2 ? true : false; puts "Hi"
      [1, 2, 3].each { |e| puts e }
  • No spaces after (, [ or before ], ).

    some(arg).other
    [1, 2, 3].length
  • Indent when as deep as case. (As suggested in the Pickaxe.)

    case
    when song.name == "Misty"
      puts "Not again!" when song.duration > 120
      puts "Too long!" when Time.now.hour > 21
      puts "It's too late"
    else
      song.play
    end
    
    kind = case year
           when 1850..1889 then "Blues"
           when 1890..1909 then "Ragtime"
           when 1910..1929 then "New Orleans Jazz" when 1930..1939 then "Swing"
           when 1940..1950 then "Bebop"
           else "Jazz"
           end
  • Use an empty line before the return value of a method (unless it only has one line), and an empty line between defs.

      def some_method
        do_something
        do_something_else
    
        result
      end
    
      def some_method
        result
      end
  • Use RDoc and its conventions for API documentation. Don't put an empty line between the comment block and the def.

  • Use empty lines to break up a method into logical paragraphs.
  • Keep lines fewer than 80 characters. (Emacs users should really have a look at whitespace-mode.)
  • Avoid trailing whitespace. (Emacs users: Whitespace-mode again comes to the rescue.)

Syntax

  • Use def with parentheses when there are arguments. Omit the parentheses when the method doesn't accept any arguments.

       def some_method
         # body omitted
       end
    
       def some_method_with_arguments(arg1, arg2)
         # body omitted
       end
  • Never use for, unless you know exactly why. Most of the time iterators should be used instead.

      arr = [1, 2, 3]
    
      # bad
      for elem in arr do
        puts elem
      end
    
      # good
      arr.each { |elem| puts elem }
  • Never use then for multiline if/unless.

    # bad
    if x.odd? then
      puts "odd"
    end
    
    # good
    if x.odd?
      puts "odd"
    end
  • Favor if/then/else over the ternary operator. if is an expression in Ruby and the resulting code is arguably easier to read (albeit not as concise). Remember that "Programs must be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute." (Abelson and Sussman)

      # good
      result = if some_condition then something else something_else end
    
      # not so good
      result = some_condition ? something : something_else
  • Use when x; ... for one-line cases.

  • Use &&/|| for boolean expressions, and/or for control flow. (Rule of thumb: If you have to use outer parentheses, you are using the wrong operators.)

      # boolean expression
      if some_condition && some_other_condition
        do_something
      end
    
      # control flow
      document.saved? or document.save!
  • Avoid multiline ?: (the ternary operator), use if/unless instead.

  • Favor modifier if/unless usage when you have a single-line body. Another good alternative is the usage of control flow and/or.

      # bad
      if some_condition
        do_something
      end
    
      # good
      do_something if some_condition
    
      # another good option
      some_condition and do_something
  • Favor unless over if for negative conditions (or control flow or).

      # bad
      do_something if !some_condition
    
      # good
      do_something unless some_condition
    
      # another good option
      some_condition or do_something
  • Suppress superfluous parentheses when calling methods, but keep them when calling "functions", i.e. when you use the return value in the same line.

      x = Math.sin(y)
      array.delete e
  • Prefer {...} over do...end for single-line blocks. Avoid using {...} for multi-line blocks. Always use do...end for "control flow" and "method definitions" (e.g. in Rakefiles and certain DSLs.) Avoid do...end when chaining.

  • Avoid return where not required.

    # bad
    def some_method(some_arr)
      return some_arr.size
    end
    
    # good
    def some_method(some_arr)
      some_arr.size
    end
  • Avoid line continuation (\) where not required. In practice, avoid using line continuations at all.

      # bad
      result = 1 + \
      2
    
      # good (but still ugly as hell)
      result = 1 \
      \+ 2
  • Using the return value of = is ok.

    if v = array.grep(/foo/) ...
  • Use ||= freely.

    # set name to Bozhidar, only if it's nil or false
    name ||= "Bozhidar"
  • Avoid using Perl-style global variables (like $0-9, $`, ...).

Naming

  • Use snake_case for methods and variables.
  • Use CamelCase for classes and modules. (Keep acronyms like HTTP, RFC, XML uppercase.)
  • Use SCREAMING_SNAKE_CASE for other constants.
  • The length of an identifier determines its scope. Use one-letter variables for short block/method parameters, according to this scheme:

      a,b,c: any object
      d: directory names
      e: elements of an Enumerable
      ex: rescued exceptions
      f: files and file names
      i,j: indexes
      k: the key part of a hash entry
      m: methods
      o: any object
      r: return values of short methods
      s: strings
      v: any value
      v: the value part of a hash entry
      x,y,z: numbers
    

    And in general, the first letter of the class name if all objects are of that type.

  • When using inject with short blocks, name the arguments |a, e| (accumulator, element).

  • When defining binary operators, name the argument other.

    def +(other)
      # body omitted
    end
  • Prefer map over collect, find over detect, find_all over select, size over length. This is not a hard requirement; if the use of the alias enhances readability, it's ok to use it.

Comments

  • Write self documenting code and ignore the rest of this section. "Good code is its own best documentation. As you're about to add a comment, ask yourself, ‘How can I improve the code so that this comment isn't needed?’ Improve the code and then document it to make it even clearer." (Steve McConnell)
  • Comments longer than a word are capitalized and use punctuation. Use two spaces after periods.
  • Avoid superfluous comments.

    # bad
    counter += 1 # increments counter by one
  • Keep existing comments up-to-date. No comment is better than an outdated comment.

  • Avoid writing comments to explain bad code. Try to refactor the code to make it self-explanatory.

Classes

  • Always supply a proper to_s method.
  • Use the attr family of functions to define trivial accessors or mutators.
  • Consider adding factory methods to provide additional sensible ways to create instances of a particular class.
  • Prefer duck-typing over inheritance.
  • Avoid the usage of class (@@) variables due to their "nasty" behavior in inheritance.
  • Assign methods proper visibility levels (private, protected) in accordance with their intended usage. Don't go off leaving everything public (which is the default). After all we're coding in Ruby now, not in Python.

Exceptions

  • Don't suppress exceptions.
  • Don't use exceptions for flow of control.

Misc

  • Write ruby -w safe code.
  • Avoid hashes as optional parameters. Does the method do too much?
  • Avoid methods longer than 10 LOC (lines of code). Ideally most methods will be shorter than 5 LOC. Empty lines do not contribute to the relevant LOC.
  • Avoid parameter lists longer than three or four parameters.
  • Use def self.method to define singleton methods. This makes the methods more resistant to refactoring changes.

      class TestClass
        # bad
        def TestClass.some_method
          # body omitted
        end
    
        # good
        def self.some_other_method
          # body omitted
        end
      end
  • Add "global" methods to Kernel (if you have to) and make them private.

  • Avoid alias when alias_method will do.
  • Use OptionParser for parsing complex command line options and ruby -s for trivial command line options.
  • Write for Ruby 1.9. Don't use legacy Ruby 1.8 constructs.

    • Use the new JavaScript literal hash syntax.
    • Use the new lambda syntax.
    • Methods like inject now accept methods names as arguments.

      [1, 2, 3].inject(:+)
  • Avoid needless metaprogramming.

Design

  • Code in a functional way, avoiding mutation when it makes sense.
  • Do not mutate arguments unless that is the purpose of the method.
  • Do not mess around in core classes when writing libraries. (Do not monkey patch them.)
  • Do not program defensively.
  • Keep the code simple and subjective. Each method should have a single, well-defined responsibility.
  • Avoid more than three levels of block nesting.
  • Don't overdesign. Overly complex solutions tend to be brittle and hard to maintain.
  • Don't underdesign. A solution to a problem should be as simple as possible, but no simpler than that. Poor initial design can lead to a lot of problems in the future.
  • Be consistent. In an ideal world, be consistent with these guidelines.
  • Use common sense.

Contributing

Nothing written in this guide is set in stone. It's my desire to work together with everyone interested in Ruby coding style, so that we could ultimately create a resource that will be beneficial to the entire Ruby community.

Feel free to open tickets or send pull requests with improvements. Thanks in advance for your help!