Toc Messenger - A distributed messaging app that can sync across all of your devices
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Toc Messenger

Circle CI

NOTE: Toc is no longer being actively maintained, and the seed server is no longer running as of March 31, 2016 (seed server is back up as of May 23, 2016) the seed server may go offline from time to time, possibly resulting in service interruptions for first-time users. If you'd like to host and use your own seed server, take a look at the toc-seed repo.

Toc Messenger is a proof-of-concept distributed messaging app designed from the ground up to support user data synchronization for use across multiple devices. Toc is available as a client-side web application (with a seed server that anyone can easily host) and as a packaged Cordova app for Android and iOS (visit the releases section to download the prebuilt packages).

Toc is only a proof-of-concept. Numerous potential issues and limitations prevent us from being able to recommend Toc for long-term general use. And due to the fact that we may not have any more time to work on Toc in the foreseeable future, these issues will not likely get resolved any time soon. For general use, we recommend taking a look at one of the many, more mature open-source messaging projects out there, such as TextSecure/Signal, Telegram, Matrix, and Tox (the name similarity is unfortunate, and we would like to apologize for any confusion this might cause, but we honestly did not find out about Tox until very recently).

That said, we do hope that by releasing Toc into the world, we can generate some renewed interest in the amazing technologies for building great decentralized software that Toc makes use of. We also hope that Toc can inspire more developers to pause and give decentralized technologies another look before defaulting to a centralized model for their software, as we hope to have demonstrated with Toc that a even a fully distributed app can in fact have great UX when designed with UX in mind from the start.

Technical Overview

Toc's interface was built using AngularJS and the Ionic Framework, using bleeding edge JavaScript ES2015 features enabled by the jspm dependency manager, the SystemJS module loader, and the Babel transpiler. We leverage Ramda to apply functional techniques wherever possible in our code, and employ a deliberate, centralized approach to application state management inspired by ClojureScript frameworks like Om.

Our version of Om's central state atom is implemented as a wrapper service around a single Baobab tree that holds our entire application state. We persist and synchronize this central state tree using the open, federated remoteStorage protocol and library, while further adding a custom encryption layer on top of it, built using Forge, with the intention to allow users to synchronize data without having to trust storage providers to respect their privacy.

Toc's peer-to-peer communication stack was built on top of Telehash (albeit the older V2 version with an integrated DHT). We use the randomly generated, cryptographically-verifiable Telehash hashname as the only identifier for our users, which means they can be protected from impersonation without having to supply any personally identifiable information. However, users can still provide a friendly name for other users to recognize them by, and an email with which Toc can use to pull their custom profile picture, using the federated, Gravatar-compatible Libravatar service.


Toc originated as a 4th year Computer Engineering design project at the University of Waterloo, where I (Lewis Liu) worked with Asif Arman, Danny Yan, and SangHoon Lee to come up with the original concept for Toc and worked together on its design, implementation and testing.

The earliest prototype can be seen in the linked repo. This was the one we had to throw away because its naive architecture could not have supported app state synchronization without a thorough rewrite.

The releases for the subsequent rewrite can be seen in the releases section of this repo.

We ended up spending the entire first semester of our 4th year building the original prototype, so we only had the final semester to work on this new rewrite. The first 2 months of that semester was spent mostly on research, technology evaluation, setting up our (in hindsight, admittedly over-engineered) dev and CI environments, and writing thousands upon thousands of words of technical documentation to satisfy our project requirements, all while coping with other school work.

So in effect, we had 1 month to actually build a MVP for Toc, which is my excuse for 1) why we ended up having no tests despite having created a rather elaborate Docker/Drone based CI/CD setup, 2) why we chose to continue using Angular 1.x and Ionic rather than something with better support for immutable data like React/Om (we simply couldn't afford any more time for learning, trial and error, and building/styling every basic component from scratch), and 3) why some earlier parts of the codebase might seem a bit rough along the edges (the abstractions we had to write to make Angular 1.x work with what's essentially an immutable data structure like Baobab were especially verbose, leaky, and inefficient).

After we graduated in May, I decided to take a short break before starting my job search in order to polish up Toc and release it. That process definitely took a little bit longer than I had planned, but I'm rather proud of how far Toc has come since the initial prototype. I genuinely hope someone out there will find this app and codebase useful.

With that said, I am now officially looking for work. If you have any openings for a ClojureScript frontend project, or a React project that makes heavy use of functional techniques and immutable data, I'd love to hear about it. You can reach me through the email on my GitHub profile or through my Toc account. =)

Limitations and Potential Issues

(i.e. Reasons why you may not want to rely on Toc as your primary means of communication)

  • Toc is not secure.

    Toc uses an outdated, slightly modified build of Telehash V2, which could still suffer from security vulnerabilities that no longer exist in the current release. Telehash V2 also happens to use a public DHT, and public DHTs have long been known to be susceptible to Sybil attacks, and can be easily crawled for metadata.

    Also, due to the limited available documentation, we could never figure out how to supply a SSL certificate for the Telehash V2 seed server, which limits our ability to use HTTPS to securely deliver the client-side code to your browser for the hosted app, due to browser security restrictions preventing HTTPS websites from accessing HTTP resources. This means the code can be compromised by an attacker in transit. As a workaround, you can download the code through HTTPS directly from GitHub and host it locally, but that obviously clashes with the great user experience we've been striving for with Toc.

    Lastly, our crypto implementation for data persistence has never been reviewed, and we certainly cannot claim to have implemented it perfectly, given our lack of experience in building applications with real-world cryptography. It's probably safer to assume that our implementation is insecure in its current state. We also had to implement a custom deterministic encryption algorithm for securing storage keys in our pseudo key-value store built on top of remoteStorage, because we couldn't find any existing deterministic encryption implementations for JS. It's a very naive implementation, even from our own perspective, so this part of the implementation is even more likely to be vulnerable. In general, we welcome any critique you may have for any of our crypto code, as we do take security very seriously and we would like to learn from any mistakes we might have made.

  • Toc has some serious limitations that can severely impact usability for long-term use.

    For instance, on mobile devices, Toc will sometimes get paused when the app is placed in the background, which will cause Toc to become unable to send status updates or receive new messages until it regains focus. There are ways to work around this that involve writing native services (at least for Android), but this simply falls way out of my area of expertise, and would take even more time that I can no longer afford to spend.

    Also, if we do ever release a new version of Toc, there's no guarantee that it will work properly with your existing profiles for this current version, because we haven't had the chance to build a proper data schema versioning and migration mechanism on top of our data store.

    Lastly, Toc will likely use more data than most centralized messaging software, due in part to our very naively designed messaging protocol that's probably not nearly as efficient as it needs to be, and due in part to the simple fact that as a distributed app, we have no access to push messaging, and need to use periodic polling for all status updates. We have done some optimization in this area to make data usage reasonably low for users with a small number of contacts, but in the worst case, you can expect network usage to grow exponentially with each additional contact.

  • Toc is missing many features that you might expect from modern messaging software.

    See our list of once-planned features for a taste of what's simply not there.

    Some quick examples include group chat, voice/video chat, message formatting, embeds support, emoticons, simultaneous login, contacts/messages deletion, etc...


As mentioned earlier, we won't have much time to review and accept pull requests for Toc in the foreseeable future. However, you're certainly welcome to fork this repo and hack on it in any way you like, as long as you respect the AGPL license and make the the source code available with your modifications if you end up distributing or hosting your own modified version.

We're releasing Toc's source in an effort to give back to the open-source community that made Toc possible, and we would like to ask any derivative projects to do the same.

Environment Setup

The entire development environment for Toc is fully reproducible using the Vagrantfile and Dockerfile provided in this repository. You can choose to follow the steps below and use Vagrant and Docker to replicate our dev environment, or set up dependencies manually on your machine using the Dockerfile and Vagrantfile in this repository as reference (it's no longer as complex as before, now that we've switched to using the Ionic Package service for packaging the Toc Cordova apps, instead of packaging locally).

Setup instructions:

  1. Install Vagrant and VirtualBox (or VMWare Workstation, which is what I personally use)
  2. Clone this repository
  3. Open terminal and navigate to this repository
  4. Start and provision the development VM and build the Docker container:
vagrant up
  1. SSH into the development VM:
vagrant ssh
  1. To pull the prebuilt container from Docker Hub's automated builds:

To build a container locally from the Dockerfile:

  1. Populate local dependencies from npm and jspm:
tocn install
tocj install

You may need to add the --no-bin-link npm flag for tocn install if you're using Windows as the host OS.

  1. You're now ready to hack on Toc!

There are several aliases provided in the Vagrant VM for quick access to common workflows (such as toc-pull, toc-build, tocn and tocj from above, as well as tasks like serving (tocs), packaging (tocp), running the Docker container interactively (toc), etc). See these implementations and others in scripts/


Copyright (C) 2015 Qi Liu

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU Affero General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
along with this program.  If not, see <>.