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Clock and Network Simulator (clknetsim) ======================================= clknetsim is a tool designed to test programs which synchronize the system clock, either over network or from a hardware reference clock. It simulates a system or a number of systems connected to each other in a network and the tested programs discipline the simulated system clocks. It can be used to quickly test how well the programs control the system clocks in various conditions or to test the network protocols. The tested programs are not modified in order to be included in the simulation, but they have some system calls redirected by a clknetsim library, which is loaded by the LD_PRELOAD feature of the dynamic linker, to a clknetsim server, which runs the simulation and collects several statistics about each client. The server and the clients run on a single host, they communicate via a UNIX domain socket. The simulation runs as fast as the host system is capable of, with two simulated systems it is usually three or four orders of magnitude faster than real time. Supported programs: - chronyd and chronyc from chrony (http://chrony.tuxfamily.org/) - ntpd, ntpdate, sntp and ntpq from ntp (http://www.ntp.org/) - ntpd from busybox (http://www.busybox.net/) - ptp4l, phc2sys and pmc from linuxptp (http://linuxptp.sourceforge.net/) Limitations: - only Linux is supported - the fake system calls implement only a minimal functionality required to keep the supported clients working - the simulated system clock advances only on select(), poll() or usleep() calls, this means the client sees the CPU as infinitely fast - adjtimex() frequency and tick changes happen immediately, the kernel has infinite HZ - adjtime() and PLL updates happen in one second intervals in the simulated time instead of the uncorrected simulated system time, all clocks are updated at the same time Usage ----- The clknetsim server is started with two required arguments, the first one is path to a configuration file describing the network and clocks and the second argument is the number of simulated nodes. The simulation is started when all clients are connected. The clients are started under a non-root user, with preloaded clknetsim.so and the environment variable CLKNETSIM_NODE set to the number of the client. Optionally, the environment variable CLKNETSIM_SOCKET can be set to the path of the UNIX domain socket which is used to connect to the server, clknetsim.sock in current directory is used by default. The CLKNETSIM_START_DATE variable can be used to specify in seconds since 1970 when should the simulated time start, 1262304000 by default (2010-01-01 0:00 UTC). The CLKNETSIM_CONNECT_TIMEOUT variable sets the server connection timeout, 10 seconds by default. The simulated network is available to the clients as one or more Ethernet networks with IPv4 addressing. All nodes have interfaces to all networks. Their addresses are 192.168.122+s.n, where n is the number of the node (starting at 1) and s is the number of the network (starting at 1). The broadcast addresses are 192.168.122+s.255. At the end of the simulation clock and network statistics are printed. clknetsim has options which can be used to control for how long the simulation should run, or if the frequency, offset or network log should be written. clknetsim -h prints a complete list of available options. A minimal example how to start a simulation: $ LD_PRELOAD=./clknetsim.so CLKNETSIM_NODE=1 chronyd -d -f chrony.conf & $ LD_PRELOAD=./clknetsim.so CLKNETSIM_NODE=2 ntpd -n -c ntp.conf & $ ./clknetsim -o log.offset -l 100000 clknetsim.conf 2 clknetsim.conf: node2_freq = (sum (* 1e-8 (normal))) node1_delay2 = (+ 1e-1 (* 1e-3 (exponential))) node2_delay1 = (+ 1e-1 (* 1e-3 (exponential))) chrony.conf: pidfile chronyd.pid local stratum 1 allow ntp.conf: pidfile ntpd.pid server 192.168.123.1 The clknetsim.bash file contains bash functions which can create the configuration in several network settings, start the simulation, stop the clients and process the results. The examples subdirectory contains an example script for each supported client. The above example can be written in a bash script as: CLKNETSIM_PATH=. . ./clknetsim.bash generate_config1 2 0.0 "(sum (* 1e-8 (normal)))" "(+ 1e-1 (* 1e-3 (exponential)))" start_client 1 chrony "local stratum 1" start_client 2 ntp "server 192.168.123.1" start_server 2 -o log.offset -l 100000 cat tmp/stats Configuration file ------------------ The configuration file is a text file containing a list of assignments, each specified on a separate line, and comments using # as delimiter. Each node has several variables, which configure the system clock, the reference clock and the network delays to other nodes in the network. They can be set either to an integer value, a floating-point value or a number generating expression written in a Lisp-style syntax. Variables: - nodeX_freq = float | expr the system clock frequency error in terms of gained seconds per second of simulated time, if an expression is specified, the expression is evaluated and frequency updated once per simulated second (or at the rate specified with the -R option), the allowed range is (-0.2, 0.2), the default is 0 - nodeX_delayY = expr the network delay for packets sent from node X to node Y in seconds, the expression is evaluated for each sent packet, a negative value means the packet will be dropped, there is no default (packets are dropped) - nodeX_offset = float the initial time error of the system clock in seconds, the default is 0 - nodeX_start = float the time in seconds when will be the node started, the default is 0 - nodeX_refclock = expr the reference clock time error in seconds, the clock can be accessed by the client via shared memory (NTP SHM protocol) or as a PTP hardware clock (PHC) via the clock_gettime() function, there is no default (the clock is disabled) - nodeX_step = expr the extra time step applied once per second (or at the rate specified with the -R option) in seconds, there is no default (no extra steps are applied) - nodeX_shift_pll = integer kernel PLL parameter, the default is 2 - nodeX_pll_clamp = 1 | 0 kernel PLL parameter, the default is 0 - nodeX_fll_mode2 = 1 | 0 kernel FLL parameter, the default is 0 Functions and their parameters supported in the expressions: (* [expr | float] ...) - multiplication (+ [expr | float] ...) - addition (% [expr | float] ...) - modulo (sum [expr | float] ...) - summation over consecutive evaluation of parameters (uniform) - random number generator with standard uniform distribution (normal) - random number generator with standard normal distribution (exponential) - random number generator with exponential distribution (lambda = 1) (poisson lambda) - random number generator with poisson distribution (file "datafile") - number generator reading floating-point values from the specified file in an inifinite loop (pulse high low) - pulse wave generator (sine period) - sine wave generator (cosine period) - cosine wave generator (triangle period) - triangle wave generator (equal epsilon [expr | float] ...) - returns 1.0 if the values of all parameters are equal within epsilon, 0.0 otherwise (max [expr | float] ...) - returns maximum value (min [expr | float] ...) - returns minimum value Variables available in network delay expressions: time - current network time from - number of the sending node to - number of the receiving node port - receiving port number length - length of the packet subnet - number of the Ethernet network in which the packet was sent An example: # node1 is an NTP server, it has an accurate and absolutely stable clock node1_offset = 0 node1_freq = 0 # node2 is an NTP client, it starts with 0.1s offset and has # 0.01ppm/s frequency wander node2_offset = 0.1 node2_freq = (sum (* 1e-8 (normal))) # network delays between the two nodes have 10ms mean and 100us # jitter in both directions node1_delay2 = (+ 9.9e-3 (* 100e-6 (exponential))) node2_delay1 = (+ 9.9e-3 (* 100e-6 (exponential))) Author ------ Miroslav Lichvar <email@example.com> License ------- Copyright (C) 2010, 2011, 2012 Miroslav Lichvar <firstname.lastname@example.org> This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.