USEAQ: Ultra-fast Superpixel Extraction via Adaptive Sampling from Quantized Regions
Abstract — We present a novel and highly efficient superpixel extraction method called USEAQ to generate regular and compact superpixels in an image. To reduce the computational cost of iterative optimization procedures adopted in most recent approaches, the proposed USEAQ for superpixel generation works in a one-pass fashion. It firstly performs joint spatial and color quantizations and groups pixels into regions. It then takes into account the variations between regions, and adaptively samples one or a few superpixel candidates for each region. It finally employs maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to assign pixels to the most spatially consistent and perceptually similar superpixels. It turns out that the proposed USEAQ is quite efficient, and the extracted superpixels can precisely adhere to boundaries of objects. Experimental results show that USEAQ achieves better or equivalent performance compared to the state-of-the-art superpixel extraction approaches in terms of boundary recall, undersegmentation error, achievable segmentation accuracy, the average miss rate, average undersegmentation error, and average unexplained variation, and it is significantly faster than these approaches.
If you use the USEAQ or USEQ codes (USEQsuperpixel_ICPR.zip) for your research, please cite the following papers.
 Chun-Rong Huang, Wei-Cheng Wang, Wei-An Wang, Szu-Yu Lin, and Yen-Yu Lin, "USEAQ: Ultra-fast Superpixel Extraction via Adaptive Sampling from Quantized Regions," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 4916-4931, Oct. 2018.
 Chun-Rong Huang, Wei-An Wang, Szu-Yu Lin, and Yen-Yu Lin, "USEQ: Ultra-Fast Superpixel Extraction via Quantization," in Proc. International Conference on Pattern Recognition, ICPR’16, pp. 1966-1971, Dec. 2016.
The webpage of USEQ is at http://cvml.cs.nchu.edu.tw/USEQ.html
As for the evaluation of Stanford Background Dataset, please refer to https://davidstutz.de/projects/superpixel-benchmark/
As for the evaluation of BSDS500 dataset, please refer to https://www.tu-chemnitz.de/etit/proaut/en/research/superpixel.html