[Ansible] Network Address Translation Manager
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README.md

Build Status

Network Address Translation Manager (natm)

This playbook automatically manages 1:1 static NAT statements within a specified VRF on Cisco IOS routers. This is a particularly labor-intensive and error-prone task, and this playbook ensures that the desired state of the NAT table is applied. Non-VRF (global table) operations are also supported.

Contact information:
Email: njrusmc@gmail.com
Twitter: @nickrusso42518

Supported platforms

Cisco IOS routers are supported today. Any router that is running NAT and could benefit by having automated management of the NAT statements is a good candidate.

Testing was conducted on the following platforms and versions:

  • Cisco CSR1000v, version 16.07.01a, running in AWS

Control machine information:

$ cat /etc/redhat-release
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 7.4 (Maipo)

$ uname -a
Linux ip-10-125-0-100.ec2.internal 3.10.0-693.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP
  Thu Jul 6 19:56:57 EDT 2017 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

$ ansible --version
ansible 2.6.2
  config file = /home/ec2-user/natm/ansible.cfg
  configured module search path = [u'/home/ec2-user/.ansible/plugins/modules',
    u'/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules']
  ansible python module location = /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/ansible
  executable location = /usr/bin/ansible
  python version = 2.7.5 (default, May  3 2017, 07:55:04)
    [GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-14)]

Variables

These playbooks rely only on host_vars which are defined for each router within a given NAT line. Each NAT line must identify a unique name, the inside private (inside local in Cisco speak), and outside public (inside global in Cisco speak). All three fields are required. The playbook checks the names and IPv4 addresses for uniqueness as a single typo could cause significant issues on the production network. If invalid input (e.g., malformed IPv4 addresses) or duplicate input (e.g., same inside local in two places), the task fails for a given host.

Additionally, each NAT line must identify the target state. There are two choices for this field, "present" and "absent", which are should be self-evident. A sample host_vars file is shown below. The vrf option can be set to false (without the quotes) or a string. When false is used, the global table is assumed. When any non-empty string is used, that string is the VRF name. An empty string yields an error.

For simplicity, the VRF is defined globally and applies to all NAT entries. If there are multiple VRFs with multiple NATs per VRF, simply create additional variables files and run the playbook again. Below is an example of a host_vars file.

Two other minor variables are also defined. save_when is just a wrapper for the ios_command option that determines when to save configuration changes. ci_test is a true/false variable that specifies when a host should actually log into routers and manage NAT statements (false) or should use mocked data for local testing only (true). Mock data files can be found in tasks/mock_<hostname>.yml.

---
vrf: "TEST"
ci_test: false
vrf: false
static_nats:
  - name: "TEST_1"
    state: "present"
    inside_private: "192.168.0.1"
    outside_public: "100.64.0.1"
  - name: "TEST_2"
    state: "absent"
    inside_private: "192.168.0.2"
    outside_public: "100.64.0.2"
  - name: "TEST_3"
    state: "present"
    inside_private: "192.168.0.3"
    outside_public: "100.64.0.3"
...

Templates

The Jinja2 templates are heavily commented for readability and are used to develop host specific configurations based on the previously defined variables. The templates should not be changed at the operator level.

One locally-scoped variable is used in the nat.j2 template. nat_cmd_prefix contains the ip nat name (name) string which simplifies addition and removal. Ultimately, this keeps the template clean and readable.

The template contains a loop which iterates over the static_nats list. One of two actions will occur:

  • If present and the NAT line does not already exist in the config, add it.
  • If absent and the NAT line already exists in the config, remove it.

Removal is slightly simpler since NAT rules are referenced by name only for deletion. Relying on the build-in idempotent functionality of the ios_config module could have reduced the playbook complexity a little, however it is preferable to actually check the NAT state table rather than only rely on the presence or absence of a configuration line. As such, this playbook adds complexity but provides a more comprehensive and accurate assessment of the current NAT state.

Handlers

A second template is for logging. Since this playbook is idempotent, logging changes is useful to identify what changed, when, and on which device. When changes occur, the task that manages the NAT configurations shows "changed" and thus can notify handlers. These log messages are printed to stdout and to a log file in the format hostname_DTG.txt in the LOG_PATH variable computed by the control machine earlier in the playbook. For example: csrnat_20180115T183845.txt.

The network device hostname and DTG are also written in the text of the log to make it easy to bookmark certain events during concatenation. The output below illustrates the use of cat and the value of these text labels.

[ec2-user@ansible natm]$ tree logs/
logs/
├── natm_20180601T115455
│   └── csrnat.txt
└── natm_20180601T115632
    └── csrnat.txt

[ec2-user@ansible natm]$ cat \
> logs/natm_20180601T115455/csrnat.txt \
> logs/natm_20180601T115632/csrnat.txt
! BEGIN csrnat @ 20180601T115455
! Updates:
ip nat name TEST_1 inside source static 192.168.0.1 100.64.0.1
ip nat name TEST_3 inside source static 192.168.0.3 100.64.0.3
!
! END   csrnat @ 20180601T115455
! BEGIN csrnat @ 20180601T115632
! Updates:
no ip nat name TEST_1
!
! END   csrnat @ 20180601T115632