Skip to content
An open source project for study S-boxes
Branch: master
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Permalink
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.
EvaluationResults/Sect5.1_CryptographicProperties
AffineMatrixColPEBox.hpp
AffineMatrixRowPEBox.hpp
HadamardMatrix.hpp
LICENSE
Makefile
MakefileSage
OptimalSboxes.hpp
README.md
STM65nm.conf
TSMC65nm.conf
UMC180nm.conf
constants.hpp
criteria.conf
criteria_filter.conf
evaluator.hpp
faster.hpp
faster_bool_op.hpp
faster_func.hpp
faster_impl_info.hpp
faster_mitm.hpp
faster_test.cpp
faster_utils.hpp
func.hpp
gatec.conf
genTest.cpp
lighter.hpp
lighter_bool_op.hpp
lighter_impl_info.hpp
lighter_mitm.hpp
lighter_string_bool_op.hpp
lighter_test.cpp
lighter_utils.hpp
main.cpp
peigen.pxd
peigen.pyx
peigen.so
sboxes3.txt
sboxes4.txt
sboxes5.txt
sboxes6.txt
sboxes7.txt
sboxes8.txt
software.conf
static_sort.h
subspaces.hpp

README.md

PEIGEN: a Platform for Evaluation, Implementation, and Generation of S-boxes

PEIGEN is a tool for study S-boxes.

The S-box is a type of non-linearity cryptographic component, commonly used in symmetric cryptography primitives. For a survey on studies of S-boxes and a formal introduction of PEIGEN, please refer to the paper [[2]](SoK: Peigen – a Platform for Evaluation, Implementation, and Generation of S-boxes).

Functionalities

Evaluation

Given a set of n-bit S-boxes (3 <= n <= 8), PEIGEN evaluates:

  • Differential Distribution Tables (DDT)

  • Linear Approximation Tables (LAT)

  • Boomerang Connectivity Tables (BCT)

  • Algebraic Normal Forms (ANF)

  • Linear Structures (LS)

  • (v,w)-linearity

  • A table indicating the appearance of monomials in the ANFs of produces of coordinate functions of an S-box, and

  • various detailed criteria related to these tables and notions (e.g., differential uniformity, linearity, DDT_1, LAT_1, algebraic degree etc.)

Given n-bit S-boxes, PEIGEN can evaluate their equivalence relations, including:

  • Permutation-XOR equivalence (PXE)

  • Linear equivalence (LE)

  • Affine equivalence (AE)

  • For a 4-bit S-box, it can partition its AE-class into PXE-classes.

Implementation

This aspect of functionality is on the basis of another tool named LIGHTER presented in [1]. More explicitly, PEIGEN is built on the basis of a sub-module of LIGHTER which is for finding hardware/software implementations of 4-bit invertible S-boxes that are good in terms of hardware area/software instruction numbers. PEIGEN inherits all functionalities provided by this sub-module of LIGHTER, and at the same time, improves the search efficiency using algorithmic-level optimizations. As a result, PEIGEN is efficient even when finding implementations for a large set of S-boxes. Besides, we add the functionality to find optimal implementations in terms of Depth Complexity. Concretely,

Given a set of n-bit S-boxes and the specific implementation configuration (available gates and costs for each gate), PEIGEN can generate implementations which are good in terms of

  • Bitslice Gate Complexity (BGC)

  • Gate Equivalent Complexity (GEC)

  • Multiplicative Complexity (MC)

  • Depth Complexity (Depth).

Generation

  • Given a set of criteria together with a set of S-boxes, PEIGEN filters out good S-boxes fulfilling the set of criteria, and output the evaluation results (output their security-related properties and implementations if required)

  • Given merely a set of criteria, PEIGEN generates new S-boxes fulfilling the set of criteria (both security-related and implementation-related properties).

Usage

PEIGEN is in the form of pure C++ template headers. To use it, include the .hpp files and add using namespace Peigen. Concrete usage are as follows.

  • To evaluate a single S-box about its security-related properties:

    • add #include "func.hpp" and using namespace Peigen;

    • use Peigen::function_t<n> S(SboxLUTstr); to initate an object of n-bit S-box (3 <= n <= 8) with given lookup table (LUT), where

      • SboxLUTstr encodes the LUT of the S-box in Hexadecimal, e.g., SboxLUTstr = "0c05060b09000a0d030e0f0804070102";.
    • use Peigen::function_t<n> S(SboxBitSlicestr); to initate an object of n-bit S-box (3 <= n <= 8) with given Bitslice representationn (concatenation of the value vectors of its coordinate functions), where

      • SboxBitSlicestr encodes the concatenation of the n value vectores of its coordinate functions, each value vector uses 2^n / 4 Hexadecimal symbols, e.g., SboxBitSlicestr = "0ed9_3687_a74c_659a";
    • use cout << S.show_xxx() << endl; to print required properties related with xxx, e.g.,

      • call S.show_coordinates_ANF() will return a string representing the Algebraic Normal Form (ANF) of the coordinate functions of S-box S.

      • call S.show_difference_distribution_matrix() will return the Differential Distribution Table (DDT) of the S-box S.

      • to see more details on what properties can be evaluated by PEIGEN, please

        • find the paper [[2]](SoK: Peigen – a Platform for Evaluation, Implementation, and Generation of S-boxes), or
        • see the examples in the folder \EvaluationResults\Sect5.1_CryptographicProperties\Sboxes4, or
        • read the source code in func.hpp
  • To simultaneously evaluate a set of S-boxes about their security-related properties:

    • add #include "lighter.hpp" and using namespace Peigen; and using namespace Peigen::weight;

    • use Peigen::weight::lighter<n> sboxn_Eva; to initate an object named sboxn_Eva of lighter for n-bit S-boxes

    • if the number of S-boxes to be evaluated is too large, use sboxn_Eva.omp_nb_threads = x; to use more thread (e.g., x = 4), generally, for 4-bit S-boxes, one thread is enough.

    • use sboxn_Eva.evaluate("sboxesn.txt", "properties_sboxesn.csv"); to get the summarized evaluation results output, where

      • sboxesn.txt is the name of the file which contains the name of the S-boxes and the specification of the S-boxes to be evaluated. Note that, in the file named sboxesn.txt, it should be one S-box per line, name and specification are separated using ,. The specification of the S-box can be eighter the LUT representation encoded in Hexadecimal (e.g., 0c05060b09000a0d030e0f0804070102) or the bitsliced representation (concatenation of the n value vectors of its coordinate functions, e.g., 0ed9_3687_a74c_659a).

      • properties_sboxesn.csv is the name of the output file which contains the summarized evaluation results in .csv file format (a simple file format used to store tabular data. Files in the CSV format can be imported to and exported from programs that store data in tables, such as Microsoft Excel or OpenOffice Calc)

      • please see files in the folder \EvaluationResults\Sect5.1_CryptographicProperties\EVA for examples

    • use sboxn_Eva.evaluate_verbose("sboxesn.txt", "properties"); to get detailed evaluation results output in .txt file.

      • please see files in the folder \EvaluationResults\Sect5.1_CryptographicProperties\Sboxes4 for examples
  • To find efficient implemtations in terms of BGC/GEC/MC:

    • add #include "lighter.hpp" and using namespace Peigen; and using namespace Peigen::weight;

    • use Peigen::weight::lighter<n> sboxn_GC; to initate an object of lighter named sboxn_GC for n-bit S-boxes.

    • use args = "-v -c 6 -l 6 -p 4 -r 160 --not1 --and2 --andn2 --or2 --xor2 -f software.conf"; to specify the configureation for the precomputation. These options are inheriated from LIGHTER with some additional arguments.

      • -a : Enable all gates and all implemented combinations of these gates

      • -v : verbose mode

      • -c <value> : limitation for precomputation

        suppose we use -c 6, this means when precomputing, all possible nodes in the graph with gate complexity no more than 6 will be expanded.

      • -l <value> : limitation for formal searching

        suppose we use -l 9, this means when searching for implementations, all possible nodes in the graph with gate complexity no more than 9 will be expanded. Note that, nodes with gate complexity more than 9 can also exist and be used, but will not be expanded further.

      • -z <value> : this is for resuming from Breakpoint. Suppose, during precomputation, the program was killed and all nodes in the graph with gate complexity no more than 6 has been expanded and write in binary files. Now, we want to resume from the breakpoint 6, we can use -z 6 to read the nodes stored in binary files and continue the precomputation from nodes with gate complexity 6.

      • -p <value> : define the number of threads used in OpenMP, e.g., -p 4 means using 4 threads to do the search in parallel.

      • -r <value> : define an upper bound on the RAM used by the programme, e.g., -r 160 means using at most 16 GB memory.

      • -f <file> : define which logic library you want to use, e.g., -f TSMC65nm.conf will use the library specified in the file TSMC65nm.conf indicating available gates and weight of each gate

      • -i <function> : in LIGHTER, this is for defining start function. However, for PEIGEN, this parameter is usually default to be the Identity function (maps x to x).

      • -o <file> : in LIGHTER, this is for defining arrival function. However, for PEIGEN, to support simultaneously finding implementations for many S-boxes, we use -o <file> define the name of the file which contains the name and the specification of the S-boxes to be implemented (this file is in the same format as the sboxesn.txt for the function sboxn_Eva.evaluate("sboxesn.txt", "properties_sboxesn.csv");). Note that, the specification of the S-boxes are either the LUT representation or the bit-sliced representation.

      • same as in LIGHTER, if [-a] is not enabled, available logic gates should be explicitly added in this command line (and weight of each gate should be specified in the provided configure file):

        --not1

        --and2

        --nand2

        --or2

        --nor2

        --nand3

        --nor3

        --xor2

        --xnor2

        --maoi1

        --moai1

    • use sboxn_GC.pre_compute(args); to precompute the graph, this will expand the graph from the Identity function, with parameters encoded in args, and store the generated graph in binary files. For each configuration (the library of gates -f <file> and the limitation for precomputation -c <value>), this can be done once for all. Thus, if this has been done, the generated binary files are stored and available, we can directly call the search function.

    • use sboxn_GC.search_batch_concatenate(args); to search the implementations of a set of S-boxes with parameters encoded in args.

  • To find efficient implementations in terms of Depth Complexity

    • add #include "faster.hpp" and using namespace Peigen; and using namespace Peigen::depth;

    • use Peigen::depth::faster<n> sboxn_Depth; to initate an object of faster named sboxn_Depth for n-bit S-boxes.

    • use a string like args = "-v -c 6 -l 6 -p 4 -r 160 --not1 --and2 --andn2 --or2 --xor2 -f software.conf"; to specify the configuration for the precomputation and the search. These options are the same as that in finding implementations in terms of BGC/GEC/MC.

    • use sboxn_Depth.pre_compute(args); to precompute the graph of nodes that represent all possible balanced Boolean functions, with limited gate complexity and depth complexity. Again, like in finding implementations in terms of BGC/GEC/MC, for each configuration, this can be done once for all.

    • use sboxn_Depth.search_batch(args); to find the implementations efficient in terms of Depth of a set of S-boxes with parameters encoded in args.

  • To evaluate a set of S-boxes and filter out those fulfilling given criteria

    • add #include "lighter.hpp" and using namespace Peigen; and using namespace Peigen::weight;

    • use Peigen::weight::lighter<n> sboxn_FILTER; to initate an object of lighter named sboxn_FILTER for n-bit S-boxes.

    • use a string like args = "-v -c 6 -l 6 -p 4 -r 160 --not1 --and2 --andn2 --or2 --xor2 -f software.conf -s criteria.conf -o sboxesn.txt"; to specify the configuration for the precomputation and filtering. The parameters are almost the same with that in finding implementations. The difference lies in -s criteria.conf which indicates the name of the file containing the user required criteria.

      • in a file like criteria.conf, required criteria should be presented one criterion per line, like the following (the name and the value should be separated by =, do not support whitespace):

        Diff=4

        Lin=8

        Diff1=0

        Lin1=4

        CardD1=4

        CardL1=8

        DiffFreq=18

        LinFreq=32

        MaxDeg=3

        MinDeg=2

        MaxDegFreq=14

        MinDegFreq=1

        Cost=10

      • Note that, if Cost is not set in criteria.conf, i.e., Cost is not a criterion for filtering, parameters for finding implementations can be omitted, and pre-computation for finding implementation can also be omitted. If Cost is set in criteria.conf, i.e., Cost is a criterion for filtering, those parameters for finding implementations are required.

    • use sboxn_FILTER.pre_compute(args); to pre-comptue the graph. Note that, if Cost is not a criterion for filtering, or if the graph under a same configuration has already been pre-computed and stored, no need to call sboxn_FILTER.pre_compute(args); for pre-computation.

    • use sboxn_FILTER.evaluate_filter(args); to evaluate and filter the given set of S-boxes. The output will be summarized results written into .csv file. If Cost is a criterion for filtering, the implementations for the S-boxes fulfilling the criteria will be generated and wrote to .c files.

  • To generate S-boxes fulfilling given criteria

    • add #include "lighter.hpp" and using namespace Peigen; and using namespace Peigen::weight;

    • use Peigen::weight::lighter<n> sboxn_GEN; to initate an object of lighter named sboxn_GEN for n-bit S-boxes.

    • use a string like -v -c 6 -l 6 -p 4 -r 160 --not1 --and2 --andn2 --or2 --xor2 -f software.conf -s criteria.conf"; to specify the configuration for the precomputation and generation. The parameters are almost the same with that in finding implementations. The difference lies in -s criteria.conf which indicates the name of the file containing the user required criteria.

      • the file like criteria.conf, is the same as in evaluating and filtering a set of S-box.

      • Note that, if Cost is not set in criteria.conf, i.e., Cost is not a criterion for filtering, parameters for finding implementations can not be omitted, because PEIGEN generate S-boxes by composing simple functions (each simple function is composed using basic gates). And PEIGEN only output those generated S-boxes fulfilling given criteria with the smallest implementation cost.

    • use sboxn_GEN.pre_compute(args); to pre-comptue the graph. Note that, if the graph under a same configuration has already been pre-computed and stored, no need to call sboxn_FILTER.pre_compute(args); for pre-computation.

    • use sboxn_GEN.generate(args); to generate a set of S-boxes fulfilling the given criteria. The output contains the following:

      • summarized results written into .csv file about the properties of the generated S-boxes.

      • implementations of the Permutation Equivalent (PE-) representatives for those generated S-box will be written into separated folders named after there property profile.

  • To build the demo program in main.cpp

    • run make all to build all examples wrote in main.cpp
    • run make evaluate to build the example of evaluating a set of S-boxes
    • run make evaluate_single to build the example of evaluating a single S-box
    • run make search_GC_n3 to build the example of finding efficient implementations in terms of BGC/GEC/MC for 3-bit S-boxes
    • run make search_GC_n4 to build the example of finding efficient implementations in terms of BGC/GEC/MC for 4-bit S-boxes
    • run make search_depth_n3 to build the example of finding efficient implementations in terms of Depth for 3-bit S-boxes
    • run make search_depth_n4 to build the example of finding efficient implementations in terms of Depth for 4-bit S-boxes
    • run make filter_n3 to build the example of evaluating and filtering a set of 3-bit S-boxes
    • run make filter_n4 to build the example of evaluating and filtering a set of 4-bit S-boxes
    • run make gen_n3 to build the example of generating 3-bit S-boxes fulfilling given criteria
    • run make gen_n4 to build the example of generating 4-bit S-boxes fulfilling given criteria
  • To check the generated implementations' correctness,

    • put the resulting implementations into a subfolder named say R of the current folder
    • run make gencheck to write the correct results () into a file named results_correct.txt.
    • run make checklighter to compile the implementations generated using an object of lighter and write the results into a file named results_test.txt. By comparing results_correct.txt and results_test.txt, one can check whether the implementations generated using the object of lighter are correct.
    • run make checkfaster to compile the implementations generated using an object of faster and write the results into a file named results_test.txt. By comparing results_correct.txt and results_test.txt, one can check whether the implementations generated using the object of faster are correct.
  • To build a module which can be used in SageMath (Unfortunately, this feature has not been finished. The small functions for evaluation has not been provided an interface to be called),

    • rename the file MakefileSage as Makefile (one may backup the original Makefile for compiling examples)

    • compile inside the SageMath shell:

      [...] ~/> sage -sh -c make

    • start SageMath (sage):

      [...] from peigen import Lighter

      [...] A = Lighter()

      [...] A.evaluate_4bit()

    • Similarly, for Faster use: from peigen import Faster

Cautions

  • Note that, the files used as input to the functions of PEIGEN should be encoded in UTF-8 and End of Line (EOL) in Unix (LF).

  • Sorry for the inconvenience, but for ease of supporting n-bit (3 <= n <= 8) S-boxes, in the string encoding the LUT of S-boxes as input to functions of PEIGEN, each element should be encoded in 2 Hexadecimal symbols (so, in total use 2 * 2^n Hexadecimal symbols) even though one Hexadecimal symbol per element is enough for n=3 and n=4.

    For example, suppose the LUT of a 4-bit S-box is {0xc,0x5,0x6,0xb,0x9,0x0,0xa,0xd,0x3,0xe,0xf,0x8,0x4,0x7,0x1,0x2}, then it should be encoded in 0c05060b09000a0d030e0f0804070102.

  • Sorry for the inconvenience again, but for small efficiency gain, bitslicing of the S-boxes is done in little endian byte and little endian bit order (this is inconsistent with that in LIGHTER): the least significant value is placed at the leftmost side in memory and, the least significant bit of the value is placed at the leftmost side in the value, e.g., suppose the LUT:

    LUT in hexadecimal (big endian byte order and little endian bit order):

    0x0 0x1 0x2 0x3 0x4 0x5 0x6 0x7 0x8 0x9 0xa 0xb 0xc 0xd 0xe 0xf
    0xc 0x5 0x6 0xb 0x9 0x0 0xa 0xd 0x3 0xe 0xf 0x8 0x4 0x7 0x1 0x2

    LUT in binary (big endian byte order and little endian bit order):

    0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111
    1100 0101 0110 1011 1001 0000 1010 1101 0011 1110 1111 1000 0100 0111 0001 0010

    In PEIGEN, bitslicing is done as follows:

    LUT in binary in memory (little endian byte order and little endian bit order):

    1111 1110 1101 1100 1011 1010 1001 1000 0111 0110 0101 0100 0011 0010 0001 0000
    0010 0001 0111 0100 1000 1111 1110 0011 1101 1010 0000 1001 1011 0110 0101 1100

    Bitslicing (little endian byte order and little endian bit order):

    1111111100000000 1111000011110000 1100110011001100 1010101010101010
    0000111011011001 0011011010000111 1010011101001100 0110010110011010

    Condensed bitsliced representation (directly indicate memory):

    ff00_f0f0_cccc_aaaa
    0ed9_3687_a74c_659a

    This resulting string 0ed9_3687_a74c_659a can be input to functions of PEIGEN to representing the S-box {0xc,0x5,0x6,0xb,0x9,0x0,0xa,0xd,0x3,0xe,0xf,0x8,0x4,0x7,0x1,0x2}.

Final Remarks

For more theoretical aspects on S-boxes and more details on PEIGEN, please refer to the paper [[2]](SoK: Peigen – a Platform for Evaluation, Implementation, and Generation of S-boxes).

Due to the storage limitation, we will not upload other results generated by PEIGEN. Please see https://www.dropbox.com/sh/x6y7u8gfvi0ki72/AADW7Pgy9NXFbA5_yAxNlBbga for them (> 5 GBs).

Please kindly cite this paper when you produce any results with the help of PEIGEN.

We aim to improve PEIGEN continuously. Your contributions are welcome.

References

[1] Jérémy Jean, Thomas Peyrin, Siang Meng Sim and Jade Tourteaux.: Optimizing Implementations of Lightweight Building Blocks. https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/101.

[2] Zhenzhen Bao, Jian Guo, San Ling and Yu Sasaki.: SoK: PEIGEN -- a Platform for Evaluation, Implementation, and Generation of S-boxes.

You can’t perform that action at this time.
You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session.