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Goose CI Go Reference Go Report Card

Goose is a database migration tool. Manage your database schema by creating incremental SQL changes or Go functions.

Starting with v3.0.0 this project adds Go module support, but maintains backwards compatibility with older v2.x.y tags.

Goose supports embedding SQL migrations, which means you'll need go1.16 and up. If using go1.15 or lower, then pin v3.0.1.

Goals of this fork is a fork of with the following changes:

  • No config files
  • Default goose binary can migrate SQL files only
  • Go migrations:
    • We don't go build Go migrations functions on-the-fly from within the goose binary
    • Instead, we let you create your own custom goose binary, register your Go migration functions explicitly and run complex migrations with your own *sql.DB connection
    • Go migration functions let you run your code within an SQL transaction, if you use the *sql.Tx argument
  • The goose pkg is decoupled from the binary:
    • goose pkg doesn't register any SQL drivers anymore, thus no driver panic() conflict within your codebase!
    • goose pkg doesn't have any vendor dependencies anymore
  • We use timestamped migrations by default but recommend a hybrid approach of using timestamps in the development process and sequential versions in production.
  • Supports missing (out-of-order) migrations with the -allow-missing flag, or if using as a library supply the functional option goose.WithAllowMissing() to Up, UpTo or UpByOne.
  • Supports applying ad-hoc migrations without tracking them in the schema table. Useful for seeding a database after migrations have been applied. Use -no-versioning flag or the functional option goose.WithNoVersioning().


go install

This will install the goose binary to your $GOPATH/bin directory.

For a lite version of the binary without DB connection dependent commands, use the exclusive build tags:

go build -tags='no_postgres no_mysql no_sqlite3 no_ydb' -o goose ./cmd/goose

For macOS users goose is available as a Homebrew Formulae:

brew install goose

See the docs for more installation instructions.




Set environment key

Usage: goose [OPTIONS] COMMAND


    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db status
    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db create init sql
    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db create add_some_column sql
    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db create fetch_user_data go
    goose sqlite3 ./foo.db up

    goose postgres "user=postgres dbname=postgres sslmode=disable" status
    goose mysql "user:password@/dbname?parseTime=true" status
    goose redshift "postgres://" status
    goose tidb "user:password@/dbname?parseTime=true" status
    goose mssql "sqlserver://user:password@dbname:1433?database=master" status
    goose clickhouse "tcp://" status
    goose vertica "vertica://user:password@localhost:5433/dbname?connection_load_balance=1" status
    goose ydb "grpcs://localhost:2135/local?go_query_mode=scripting&go_fake_tx=scripting&go_query_bind=declare,numeric" status

    GOOSE_DRIVER=sqlite3 GOOSE_DBSTRING=./foo.db goose status
    GOOSE_DRIVER=sqlite3 GOOSE_DBSTRING=./foo.db goose create init sql
    GOOSE_DRIVER=postgres GOOSE_DBSTRING="user=postgres dbname=postgres sslmode=disable" goose status
    GOOSE_DRIVER=mysql GOOSE_DBSTRING="user:password@/dbname" goose status
    GOOSE_DRIVER=redshift GOOSE_DBSTRING="postgres://" goose status


        applies missing (out-of-order) migrations
  -certfile string
        file path to root CA's certificates in pem format (only support on mysql)
  -dir string
        directory with migration files (default ".", can be set via the GOOSE_MIGRATION_DIR env variable).
  -h    print help
        disable color output (NO_COLOR env variable supported)
        apply migration commands with no versioning, in file order, from directory pointed to
  -s    use sequential numbering for new migrations
  -ssl-cert string
        file path to SSL certificates in pem format (only support on mysql)
  -ssl-key string
        file path to SSL key in pem format (only support on mysql)
  -table string
        migrations table name (default "goose_db_version")
  -timeout duration
        maximum allowed duration for queries to run; e.g., 1h13m
  -v    enable verbose mode
        print version

    up                   Migrate the DB to the most recent version available
    up-by-one            Migrate the DB up by 1
    up-to VERSION        Migrate the DB to a specific VERSION
    down                 Roll back the version by 1
    down-to VERSION      Roll back to a specific VERSION
    redo                 Re-run the latest migration
    reset                Roll back all migrations
    status               Dump the migration status for the current DB
    version              Print the current version of the database
    create NAME [sql|go] Creates new migration file with the current timestamp
    fix                  Apply sequential ordering to migrations
    validate             Check migration files without running them


Create a new SQL migration.

$ goose create add_some_column sql
$ Created new file: 20170506082420_add_some_column.sql

Edit the newly created file to define the behavior of your migration.

You can also create a Go migration, if you then invoke it with your own goose binary:

$ goose create fetch_user_data go
$ Created new file: 20170506082421_fetch_user_data.go


Apply all available migrations.

$ goose up
$ OK    001_basics.sql
$ OK    002_next.sql
$ OK    003_and_again.go


Migrate up to a specific version.

$ goose up-to 20170506082420
$ OK    20170506082420_create_table.sql


Migrate up a single migration from the current version

$ goose up-by-one
$ OK    20170614145246_change_type.sql


Roll back a single migration from the current version.

$ goose down
$ OK    003_and_again.go


Roll back migrations to a specific version.

$ goose down-to 20170506082527
$ OK    20170506082527_alter_column.sql


Roll back the most recently applied migration, then run it again.

$ goose redo
$ OK    003_and_again.go
$ OK    003_and_again.go


Print the status of all migrations:

$ goose status
$   Applied At                  Migration
$   =======================================
$   Sun Jan  6 11:25:03 2013 -- 001_basics.sql
$   Sun Jan  6 11:25:03 2013 -- 002_next.sql
$   Pending                  -- 003_and_again.go

Note: for MySQL parseTime flag must be enabled.

Note: for MySQL multiStatements must be enabled. This is required when writing multiple queries separated by ';' characters in a single sql file.


Print the current version of the database:

$ goose version
$ goose: version 002


goose supports migrations written in SQL or in Go.

SQL Migrations

A sample SQL migration looks like:

-- +goose Up
    id int NOT NULL,
    title text,
    body text,

-- +goose Down

Each migration file must have exactly one -- +goose Up annotation. The -- +goose Down annotation is optional. If the file has both annotations, then the -- +goose Up annotation must come first.

Notice the annotations in the comments. Any statements following -- +goose Up will be executed as part of a forward migration, and any statements following -- +goose Down will be executed as part of a rollback.

By default, all migrations are run within a transaction. Some statements like CREATE DATABASE, however, cannot be run within a transaction. You may optionally add -- +goose NO TRANSACTION to the top of your migration file in order to skip transactions within that specific migration file. Both Up and Down migrations within this file will be run without transactions.

By default, SQL statements are delimited by semicolons - in fact, query statements must end with a semicolon to be properly recognized by goose.

More complex statements (PL/pgSQL) that have semicolons within them must be annotated with -- +goose StatementBegin and -- +goose StatementEnd to be properly recognized. For example:

-- +goose Up
-- +goose StatementBegin
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION histories_partition_creation( DATE, DATE )
returns void AS $$
  create_query text;
  FOR create_query IN SELECT
      'CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS histories_'
      || TO_CHAR( d, 'YYYY_MM' )
      || ' ( CHECK( created_at >= timestamp '''
      || TO_CHAR( d, 'YYYY-MM-DD 00:00:00' )
      || ''' AND created_at < timestamp '''
      || TO_CHAR( d + INTERVAL '1 month', 'YYYY-MM-DD 00:00:00' )
      || ''' ) ) inherits ( histories );'
    FROM generate_series( $1, $2, '1 month' ) AS d
    EXECUTE create_query;
END;         -- FUNCTION END
language plpgsql;
-- +goose StatementEnd

Goose supports environment variable substitution in SQL migrations through annotations. To enable this feature, use the -- +goose ENVSUB ON annotation before the queries where you want substitution applied. It stays active until the -- +goose ENVSUB OFF annotation is encountered. You can use these annotations multiple times within a file.

This feature is disabled by default for backward compatibility with existing scripts.

For PL/pgSQL functions or other statements where substitution is not desired, wrap the annotations explicitly around the relevant parts. For example, to exclude escaping the ** characters:

-- +goose StatementBegin
RETURNS void AS $$
-- +goose ENVSUB ON
-- +goose ENVSUB OFF
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;
-- +goose StatementEnd
Supported expansions (click here to expand):
  • ${VAR} or $VAR - expands to the value of the environment variable VAR
  • ${VAR:-default} - expands to the value of the environment variable VAR, or default if VAR is unset or null
  • ${VAR-default} - expands to the value of the environment variable VAR, or default if VAR is unset
  • ${VAR?err_msg} - expands to the value of the environment variable VAR, or prints err_msg and error if VAR unset
  • ${VAR:?err_msg} - expands to the value of the environment variable VAR, or prints err_msg and error if VAR unset or null. THIS IS NOT SUPPORTED

See mfridman/interpolate for more details on supported expansions.

Embedded sql migrations

Go 1.16 introduced new feature: compile-time embedding files into binary and corresponding filesystem abstraction.

This feature can be used only for applying existing migrations. Modifying operations such as fix and create will continue to operate on OS filesystem even if using embedded files. This is expected behaviour because io/fs interfaces allows read-only access.

Make sure to configure the correct SQL dialect, see dialect.go for supported SQL dialects.

Example usage, assuming that SQL migrations are placed in the migrations directory:

package main

import (


//go:embed migrations/*.sql
var embedMigrations embed.FS

func main() {
    var db *sql.DB
    // setup database


    if err := goose.SetDialect("postgres"); err != nil {

    if err := goose.Up(db, "migrations"); err != nil {

    // run app

Note that we pass "migrations" as directory argument in Up because embedding saves directory structure.

Go Migrations

  1. Create your own goose binary, see example
  2. Import
  3. Register your migration functions
  4. Run goose command, ie. goose.Up(db *sql.DB, dir string)

A sample Go migration 00002_users_add_email.go file looks like:

package migrations

import (


func init() {
	goose.AddMigration(Up, Down)

func Up(tx *sql.Tx) error {
	_, err := tx.Exec("UPDATE users SET username='admin' WHERE username='root';")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	return nil

func Down(tx *sql.Tx) error {
	_, err := tx.Exec("UPDATE users SET username='root' WHERE username='admin';")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	return nil

Note that Go migration files must begin with a numeric value, followed by an underscore, and must not end with *_test.go.


This can be used to build local goose binaries without having the latest Go version installed locally.

DOCKER_BUILDKIT=1  docker build -f Dockerfile.local --output bin .

Hybrid Versioning

Please, read the versioning problem first.

By default, if you attempt to apply missing (out-of-order) migrations goose will raise an error. However, If you want to apply these missing migrations pass goose the -allow-missing flag, or if using as a library supply the functional option goose.WithAllowMissing() to Up, UpTo or UpByOne.

However, we strongly recommend adopting a hybrid versioning approach, using both timestamps and sequential numbers. Migrations created during the development process are timestamped and sequential versions are ran on production. We believe this method will prevent the problem of conflicting versions when writing software in a team environment.

To help you adopt this approach, create will use the current timestamp as the migration version. When you're ready to deploy your migrations in a production environment, we also provide a helpful fix command to convert your migrations into sequential order, while preserving the timestamp ordering. We recommend running fix in the CI pipeline, and only when the migrations are ready for production.


The gopher mascot was designed by Renée French / CC 3.0. For more info check out the Go Blog. Adapted by Ellen.


Licensed under MIT License