Skip to content

pypa/manylinux

main
Switch branches/tags
Code

manylinux

Email: wheel-builders@python.org

Archives: https://mail.python.org/mailman/listinfo/wheel-builders

Older archives: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/manylinux-discuss

The goal of the manylinux project is to provide a convenient way to distribute binary Python extensions as wheels on Linux. This effort has produced PEP 513 (manylinux1), PEP 571 (manylinux2010), PEP 599 (manylinux2014) and PEP 600 (manylinux_x_y).

PEP 513 defined manylinux1_x86_64 and manylinux1_i686 platform tags and the wheels were built on Centos5. Centos5 reached End of Life (EOL) on March 31st, 2017.

PEP 571 defined manylinux2010_x86_64 and manylinux2010_i686 platform tags and the wheels were built on Centos6. Centos6 reached End of Life (EOL) on November 30th, 2020.

PEP 599 defines the following platform tags:

  • manylinux2014_x86_64
  • manylinux2014_i686
  • manylinux2014_aarch64
  • manylinux2014_armv7l
  • manylinux2014_ppc64
  • manylinux2014_ppc64le
  • manylinux2014_s390x

Wheels are built on CentOS 7 which will reach End of Life (EOL) on June 30th, 2024.

PEP 600 has been designed to be "future-proof" and does not enforce specific symbols and a specific distro to build. It only states that a wheel tagged manylinux_x_y shall work on any distro based on glibc>=x.y. The manylinux project supports:

  • manylinux_2_24 images for x86_64, i686, aarch64, ppc64le and s390x.
  • manylinux_2_28 images for x86_64, aarch64, ppc64le and s390x.

Wheel packages compliant with those tags can be uploaded to PyPI (for instance with twine) and can be installed with pip:

manylinux tag Client-side pip version required CPython (sources) version embedding a compatible pip Distribution default pip compatibility
manylinux_x_y pip >= 20.3 3.8.10+, 3.9.5+, 3.10.0+ ALT Linux 10+, RHEL 9+, Debian 11+, Fedora 34+, Mageia 8+, Photon OS 3.0 with updates, Ubuntu 21.04+
manylinux2014 pip >= 19.3 3.7.8+, 3.8.4+, 3.9.0+ CentOS 7 rh-python38, CentOS 8 python38, Fedora 32+, Mageia 8+, openSUSE 15.3+, Photon OS 4.0+ (3.0+ with updates), Ubuntu 20.04+
manylinux2010 pip >= 19.0 3.7.3+, 3.8.0+ ALT Linux 9+, CentOS 7 rh-python38, CentOS 8 python38, Fedora 30+, Mageia 7+, openSUSE 15.3+, Photon OS 4.0+ (3.0+ with updates), Ubuntu 20.04+
manylinux1 pip >= 8.1.0 3.5.2+, 3.6.0+ ALT Linux 8+, Amazon Linux 1+, CentOS 7+, Debian 9+, Fedora 25+, openSUSE 15.2+, Mageia 7+, Photon OS 1.0+, Ubuntu 16.04+

The various manylinux tags allow projects to distribute wheels that are automatically installed (and work!) on the vast majority of desktop and server Linux distributions.

This repository hosts several manylinux-related things:

Docker images

Building manylinux-compatible wheels is not trivial; as a general rule, binaries built on one Linux distro will only work on other Linux distros that are the same age or newer. Therefore, if we want to make binaries that run on most Linux distros, we have to use an old enough distro.

Rather than forcing you to install an old distro yourself, install Python, etc., we provide Docker images where we've done the work for you. The images are uploaded to quay.io and are tagged for repeatable builds.

manylinux_2_28 (AlmaLinux 8 based)

Toolchain: GCC 11

  • x86_64 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_28_x86_64
  • aarch64 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_28_aarch64
  • ppc64le image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_28_ppc64le
  • s390x image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_28_s390x

manylinux2014 (CentOS 7 based)

Toolchain: GCC 10

  • x86_64 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux2014_x86_64
  • i686 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux2014_i686
  • aarch64 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux2014_aarch64
  • ppc64le image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux2014_ppc64le
  • s390x image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux2014_s390x

manylinux_2_24 (Debian 9 based)

These images have some caveats mentioned in different issues. Deprecation for these images is being discussed.

Toolchain: GCC 6

  • x86_64 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_24_x86_64
  • i686 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_24_i686
  • aarch64 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_24_aarch64
  • ppc64le image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_24_ppc64le
  • s390x image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux_2_24_s390x

manylinux2010 (CentOS 6 based - EOL)

Support for manylinux2010 has ended on August 1st, 2022.

Toolchain: GCC 8

  • x86-64 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux2010_x86_64
  • i686 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux2010_i686

manylinux1 (CentOS 5 based - EOL)

Code and details regarding manylinux1 can be found in the manylinux1 branch.

Support for manylinux1 has ended on January 1st, 2022.

Toolchain: GCC 4.8

  • x86-64 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux1_x86_64
  • i686 image: quay.io/pypa/manylinux1_i686

All images are rebuilt using GitHub Actions / Travis-CI on every commit to this repository; see the docker/ directory for source code.

Image content

All images currently contain:

  • CPython 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, and PyPy 3.7, 3.8, 3.9 installed in /opt/python/<python tag>-<abi tag>. The directories are named after the PEP 425 tags for each environment -- e.g. /opt/python/cp37-cp37m contains a CPython 3.7 build, and can be used to produce wheels named like <pkg>-<version>-cp37-cp37m-<arch>.whl.
  • Development packages for all the libraries that PEP 571/599 list. One should not assume the presence of any other development package.
  • The auditwheel tool

Note that less common or virtually unheard of flag combinations (such as --with-pydebug (d) and --without-pymalloc (absence of m)) are not provided.

Note that starting with CPython 3.8, default sys.abiflags became an empty string: the m flag for pymalloc became useless (builds with and without pymalloc are ABI compatible) and so has been removed. (e.g. /opt/python/cp38-cp38)

Note that PyPy is not available on ppc64le & s390x.

Building Docker images

To build the Docker images, please run the following command from the current (root) directory:

$ PLATFORM=$(uname -m) POLICY=manylinux2014 COMMIT_SHA=latest ./build.sh

Please note that the Docker build is using buildx.

Updating the requirements

The requirement files are pinned and controlled by pip-tools compile. To update the pins, run nox on a Linux system with all supported versions of Python included. For example, using a docker image:

$ docker run --rm -v $PWD:/nox -t quay.io/pypa/manylinux2010_x86_64:latest pipx run nox -f /nox/noxfile.py -s update_python_dependencies update_python_tools

Updating the native dependencies

Native dependencies are all pinned in the Dockerfile. To update the pins, run the dedicated nox session. This will add a commit for each update. If you only want to see what would be updated, you can do a dry run:

$ nox -s update_native_dependencies [-- --dry-run]

Example

An example project which builds x86_64 wheels for each Python interpreter version can be found here: https://github.com/pypa/python-manylinux-demo. The repository also contains demo to build i686 and x86_64 wheels with manylinux1 tags.

This demonstrates how to use these docker images in conjunction with auditwheel to build manylinux-compatible wheels using the free travis ci continuous integration service.

(NB: for the i686 images running on a x86_64 host machine, it's necessary to run everything under the command line program linux32, which changes reported architecture in new program environment. See this example invocation)

The PEP itself

The official version of PEP 513 is stored in the PEP repository, but we also have our own copy here. This is where the PEP was originally written, so if for some reason you really want to see the full history of edits it went through, then this is the place to look.

The proposal to upgrade manylinux1 to manylinux2010 after Centos5 reached EOL was discussed in PEP 571.

The proposal to upgrade manylinux2010 to manylinux2014 was discussed in PEP 599.

The proposal for a "future-proof" manylinux_x_y definition was discussed in PEP 600.

This repo also has some analysis code that was used when putting together the original proposal in the policy-info/ directory.

If you want to read the full discussion that led to the original policy, then lots of that is here: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/manylinux-discuss

The distutils-sig archives for January 2016 also contain several threads.

Code of Conduct

Everyone interacting in the manylinux project's codebases, issue trackers, chat rooms, and mailing lists is expected to follow the PSF Code of Conduct.