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added WWW sections

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gvanrossum committed Feb 27, 1995
1 parent 7defee7 commit a12ef9433bafc0507f1b37e19982a0af5eefc8dd
@@ -32,23 +32,27 @@ ref.dvi: ref.tex ref1.tex ref2.tex ref3.tex ref4.tex ref5.tex ref6.tex \
LIBFILES = lib.tex \
libal.tex libaifc.tex libamoeba.tex libarray.tex libaudio.tex libaudioop.tex \
libbltin.tex \
libcopy.tex libcrypto.tex \
libcgi.tex libcopy.tex libcrypto.tex \
libdbm.tex \
libexcs.tex \
libfcntl.tex libfl.tex libfm.tex libfuncs.tex \
libgdbm.tex libgetopt.tex libgl.tex libgrp.tex \
libfcntl.tex libfl.tex libfm.tex libftplib.tex libfuncs.tex \
libgdbm.tex libgetopt.tex libgl.tex libgopherlib.tex libgrp.tex \
libhtmllib.tex libhttplib.tex \
libimageop.tex libimgfile.tex libintro.tex \
libjpeg.tex \
libmac.tex libmain.tex libmarshal.tex libmath.tex \
libmd5.tex libmm.tex libmods.tex libmpz.tex \
libmd5.tex libmimetools.tex libmm.tex libmods.tex libmpz.tex \
libnntplib.tex \
libobjs.tex libos.tex \
libpanel.tex libposix.tex libposixfile.tex libppath.tex libpickle.tex \
libpwd.tex \
librand.tex libregex.tex libregsub.tex librgbimg.tex librotor.tex \
libselect.tex libsgi.tex libshelve.tex libsocket.tex libstd.tex libstdwin.tex \
librand.tex libregex.tex libregsub.tex \
librfc822.tex librgbimg.tex librotor.tex \
libselect.tex libsgi.tex libsgmllib.tex \
libshelve.tex libsocket.tex libstd.tex libstdwin.tex \
libstring.tex libstruct.tex libsun.tex libsys.tex \
libthread.tex libtime.tex libtypes.tex \
libunix.tex \
libthread.tex libtime.tex libtypes.tex libtypes2.tex \
libunix.tex liburllib.tex liburlparse.tex \
libwhrandom.tex libwww.tex

lib.dvi: $(LIBFILES)
@@ -70,6 +70,7 @@
\input{libtypes2} % types is already taken :-(

\input{libunix} % UNIX ONLY
@@ -86,6 +87,7 @@

\input{libwww} % WWW EXTENSIONS
@@ -70,6 +70,7 @@
\input{libtypes2} % types is already taken :-(

\input{libunix} % UNIX ONLY
@@ -86,6 +87,7 @@

\input{libwww} % WWW EXTENSIONS
@@ -0,0 +1,130 @@
\section{Built-in module \sectcode{cgi}}

This module makes it easy to write Python scripts that run in a WWW
server using the Common Gateway Interface. It was written by Michael
McLay and subsequently modified by Steve Majewski and Guido van

When a WWW server finds that a URL contains a reference to a file in a
particular subdirectory (usually \code{/cgibin}), it runs the file as
a subprocess. Information about the request such as the full URL, the
originating host etc., is passed to the subprocess in the shell
environment; additional input from the client may be read from
standard input. Standard output from the subprocess is sent back
across the network to the client as the response from the request.
The CGI protocol describes what the environment variables passed to
the subprocess mean and how the output should be formatted. The
official reference documentation for the CGI protocol can be found on
the World-Wide Web at
\code{<URL:>}. The
\code{cgi} module was based on version 1.1 of the protocol and should
also work with version 1.0.

The \code{cgi} module defines several classes that make it easy to
access the information passed to the subprocess from a Python script;
in particular, it knows how to parse the input sent by an HTML
``form'' using either a POST or a GET request (these are alternatives
for submitting forms in the HTTP protocol).

The formatting of the output is so trivial that no additional support
is needed. All you need to do is print a minimal set of MIME headers
describing the output format, followed by a blank line and your actual
output. E.g. if you want to generate HTML, your script could start as

# Header -- one or more lines:
print "Content-type: text/html"
# Blank line separating header from body:
# Body, in HTML format:
print "<TITLE>The Amazing SPAM Homepage!</TITLE>"
# etc...

The server will add some header lines of its own, but it won't touch
the output following the header.

The \code{cgi} module defines the following functions:

Read and parse the form submitted to the script and return a
dictionary containing the form's fields. This should be called at
most once per script invocation, as it may consume standard input (if
the form was submitted through a POST request). The keys in the
resulting dictionary are the field names used in the submission; the
values are {\em lists} of the field values (since field name may be
used multiple times in a single form). As a side effect, it sets
\code{environ['QUERY_STRING']} to the raw query string, if it isn't
already set.

Print a piece of HTML listing the environment variables that may be
set by the CGI protocol.
This is mainly useful when learning about writing CGI scripts.

Print a piece of HTML text showing the entire contents of the shell
environment. This is mainly useful when debugging a CGI script.

Print a piece of HTML text showing the contents of the \var{form}.
This is mainly useful when debugging a CGI script.

Convert special characters in \var{string} to HTML escapes. In
particular, ``\code{\&}'' is replaced with ``\code{\&amp;}'',
``\code{<}'' is replaced with ``\code{\&lt;}'', and ``\code{>}'' is
replaced with ``\code{\&gt;}''. This is useful when printing (almost)
arbitrary text in an HTML context. Note that for inclusion in quoted
tag attributes (e.g. \code{<A HREF="...">}), some additional
characters would have to be converted --- in particular the string
quote. There is currently no function that does this.
The module defines the following classes. Since the base class
initializes itself by calling \code{parse()}, at most one instance of
at most one of these classes should be created per script invocation:
This class behaves like a (read-only) dictionary and has the same keys
and values as the dictionary returned by \code{parse()} (i.e. each
field name maps to a list of values). Additionally, it initializes
its data member \code{query_string} to the raw query sent from the
This class, derived from \code{FormContentDict}, is a little more
user-friendly when you are expecting that each field name is only used
once in the form. When you access for a particular field (using
\code{form[fieldname]}), it will return the string value of that item
if it is unique, or raise \code{IndexError} if the field was specified
more than once in the form. (If the field wasn't specified at all,
\code{KeyError} is raised.) To access fields that are specified
multiple times, use \code{form.getlist(fieldname)}. The
\code{values()} and \code{items()} methods return mixed lists --
containing strings for singly-defined fields, and lists of strings for
multiply-defined fields.
(It currently defines some more classes, but these are experimental
and/or obsolescent, and are thus not documented --- see the source for
more informations.)
The module defines the following variable:
The shell environment, exactly as received from the http server. See
the CGI documentation for a description of the various fields.
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
\section{Built-in module \sectcode{ftplib}}
To be provided.
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
\section{Built-in module \sectcode{gopherlib}}
To be provided.
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
\section{Built-in module \sectcode{htmllib}}
To be provided.
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
\section{Built-in module \sectcode{httplib}}

This module defines a class which implements the client side of the
HTTP protocol. It is normally not used directly --- the module
\code{urlllib} module uses it to handle URLs that use HTTP.

The module defines one class, \code{HTTP}. An \code{HTTP} instance
represents one transaction with an HTTP server. It should be
instantiated passing it a host and optional port number. If no port
number is passed, the port is extracted from the host string if it has
the form \code{host:port}, else the default HTTP port (80) is used.
If no host is passed, no connection is made, and the \code{connect}
method should be used to connect to a server.

Once an \code{HTTP} instance has been connected to an HTTP server, it
should be used as follows:


\item[1.] Make exactly one call to the \code{putrequest()} method.

\item[2.] Make zero or more calls to the \code{putheader()} method.

\item[3.] Call the \code{endheaders()} method (this can be omitted if
step 4. makes no calls).

\item[4.] Optional calls to the \code{send()} method.

\item[5.] Call the \code{getreply()} method.

\item[6.] Call the \code{getfile()} method and read the data off the
file object that it returns.


\code{HTTP} instances have the following methods:

Set the debugging level (the amount of debugging output printed).
The default debug level is \code{0}, meaning no debugging output is

\begin{funcdesc}{connect}{host\optional{\, port}}
Connect to the server given by \var{host} and \var{port}. See the
intro for the default port. This should be called directly only if
the instance was instantiated without passing a host.

Send data to the server. This should be used directly only after the
\code{endheaders()} method has been called and before
\code{getreply()} has been called.

\begin{funcdesc}{putrequest}{request\, selector}
This should be the first call after the connection to the server has
been made. It sends a line to the server consisting of the
\var{request} string, the \var{selector} string, and the HTTP version

\begin{funcdesc}{putheader}{header\, argument\optional{\, ...}}
Send an RFC-822 style header to the server. It sends a line to the
server consisting of the header, a colon and a space, and the first
argument. If more arguments are given, continuation lines are sent,
each consisting of a tab and an argument.

Send a blank line to the server, signalling the end of the headers.

Complete the request by shutting down the sending end of the socket,
read the reply from the server, and return a triple (\var{replycode},
\var{message}, \var{headers}). Here \var{replycode} is the integer
reply code from the request (e.g. \code{200} if the request was
handled properly); \var{message} is the message string corresponding
to the reply code; and \var{header} is an instance of the class
\code{rfc822.Message} containing the headers received from the server.
See the description of the \code{rfc822} module.

Return a file object from which the data returned by the server can be
read, using the \code{read()}, \code{readline()} or \code{readlines()}
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
\section{Built-in module \sectcode{mimetools}}
To be provided.
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
\section{Built-in module \sectcode{nntplib}}
To be provided.

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