Spark implementation of Fayyad's discretizer based on Minimum Description Length Principle (MDLP)
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README.md

Minimum Description Length Discretizer

This method implements Fayyad's discretizer [1] based on Minimum Description Length Principle (MDLP) in order to treat non discrete datasets from a distributed perspective. We have developed a distributed version from the original one performing some important changes.

Spark package: http://spark-packages.org/package/sramirez/spark-MDLP-discretization

Please cite as:

Ramírez‐Gallego Sergio, García Salvador, Mouriño‐Talín Héctor, Martínez‐Rego David, Bolón‐Canedo Verónica, Alonso‐Betanzos Amparo, Benítez José Manuel, Herrera Francisco. "Data discretization: taxonomy and big data challenge". WIREs Data Mining Knowl Discov 2016, 6: 5-21. doi: 10.1002/widm.1173

Improvements:

  • Version for ml library.
  • Support for sparse data.
  • Multi-attribute processing. The whole process is carried out in a single step when the number of boundary points per attribute fits well in one partition (<= 100K boundary points per attribute).
  • Support for attributes with a huge number of boundary points (> 100K boundary points per attribute). Rare case.

This software has been proved with two large real-world datasets such as:

Design doc: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1HOaPL_HJzTbL2tVdzbTjhr5wxVvPe9e-23S7rc2VcsY/edit?usp=sharing

Example (ml):

import org.apache.spark.ml.feature._

val discretizer = new MDLPDiscretizer()
    .setMaxBins(10)
    .setMaxByPart(10000)
    .setInputCol("features")
    .setLabelCol("class")
    .setOutputCol("buckedFeatures")
  
val result = discretizer.fit(df).transform(df)

Example (MLLIB):

import org.apache.spark.mllib.feature.MDLPDiscretizer

val categoricalFeat: Option[Seq[Int]] = None
val nBins = 25
val maxByPart = 10000

println("*** Discretization method: Fayyad discretizer (MDLP)")
println("*** Number of bins: " + nBins)

// Data must be cached in order to improve the performance

val discretizer = MDLPDiscretizer.train(data, // RDD[LabeledPoint]
    categoricalFeat, // continuous features
    nBins, // max number of thresholds by feature
    maxByPart) // max elements per partition
discretizer

val discrete = data.map(i => LabeledPoint(i.label, discretizer.transform(i.features)))
discrete.first()

Important notes:

MDLP uses maxByPart parameter to group boundary points by feature in order to perform an independent computation of entropy per attribute. In most of cases, a default value of 10K is enough to compute the entropy in a parallel way, thus removing iterativity implicit when we manage features with many boundary points. Log messages inform when there is a "big" feature (| boundary | > maxByPart) in our algorithm, which can deteriorate the performance of the algorithm. To solve this problem, it is recommended to increment the maxByPart's value to 100K, or to reduce the precision of data in problems with floating-point values.

##References

[1] Fayyad, U., & Irani, K. (1993). "Multi-interval discretization of continuous-valued attributes for classification learning."

Please, for any comment, contribution or question refer to: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/SPARK-6509.