Integrate Bullet Physics into jMonkeyEngine projects. (code has New BSD license)
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The Minie Project is about improving the integration of Bullet Real-Time Physics into the jMonkeyEngine Game Engine.

It contains 2 sub-projects:

  1. MinieLibrary: the Minie runtime library (in Java)
  2. MinieExamples: demos, examples, and test software (in Java)

Summary of features:

  • DynamicAnimControl for ragdoll simulation:
    • set dynamic/kinematic mode per bone
    • deals with attachments
    • highly configurable, with many options for bone mass, center, and shape
    • apply inverse-kinematic controllers and joints
  • MultiSphere collision shapes based on btMultiSphereShape
  • EmptyShape collision shapes based on btEmptyShape
  • debugging aids:
    • dump the contents of a physics space
    • customize debug material per collision object
    • visualize the local axes of each collision object
    • visualize in multiple viewports
    • hi-resolution debug meshes for convex shapes
    • options to generate debug meshes that include normals
  • all joints, shapes, and collision objects implement the JmeCloneable and Comparable interfaces
  • enable/disable a joint
  • create single-ended joints
  • settable global default for collision margin
  • fixes for many jme3-bullet bugs (including 740, 877, 896, 923, and 938)
  • access more parameters of rigid bodies:
    • anisotropic friction
    • contact damping
    • contact stiffness
    • contact-processing threshold
    • deactivation time
    • linear factor
    • rolling friction
    • spinning friction
  • option to apply the scale of a kinematic RigidBodyControl
  • improved Javadoc and inline documentation, better encapsulation
  • decoupled from the jMonkeyEngine release cycle
  • tutorial, demo, and test applications provided
  • Java source code provided under a FreeBSD license

Features of jme3-bullet that Minie omits:

  • CharacterControl: use BetterCharacterControl instead, or else use PhysicsCharacter directly
  • KinematicRagdollControl, HumanoidRagdollPreset, and RagdollPreset: use DynamicAnimControl instead
  • RagdollUtils: use RagUtils instead

Other important differences:

  • The default collision margin increased from 0 to 0.04 .
  • RagdollCollisionListener interface changed and moved from the com.jme3.bullet.collision package to the com.jme3.bullet.animation package.
  • BulletAppState.stopPhysics() is not longer public: detach the AppState instead

Contents of this document


Newer releases (since v0.5.0) can be downloaded from GitHub.

Older releases (v0.1.1 through v0.4.5) can be downloaded from the Jme3-utilities Project.

Maven artifacts are available from JFrog Bintray.


Package names begin with jme3utilities.minie (if Stephen Gold holds the copyright) or com.jme3.bullet (if the jMonkeyEngine Project holds the copyright).

The source code is compatible with JDK 7.


Since November 2018, the Minie Project has been an independent project at GitHub.

From January 2018 to November 2018, Minie was a sub-project of the Jme3-utilities Project.

Most of Minie was originally forked from jme3-bullet, a library in the jMonkeyEngine Game Engine.

The evolution of Minie is chronicled in its release notes.

How to install the SDK and the Minie Project

jMonkeyEngine3 (jME3) Software Development Kit (SDK)

Minie currently targets Version 3.2.2 of jMonkeyEngine. You are welcome to use the Engine without also using the SDK, but I use the SDK, and the following installation instructions assume you will too.

The hardware and software requirements of the SDK are documented on the JME wiki.

  1. Download a jMonkeyEngine 3.2 SDK from GitHub.
  2. Install the SDK, which includes:
    • the engine itself,
    • an integrated development environment (IDE) based on NetBeans,
    • various plugins, and
    • the Blender 3D application.
  3. To open the Minie project in the IDE (or NetBeans), you will need the Gradle Support plugin. Download and install it before proceeding. If this plugin isn't shown in the IDE's "Plugins" tool, you can download it from GitHub. You don't need this plugin if you merely want to use a pre-built Minie release in an Ant project.

Source files

Clone the Minie repository using Git:

  1. Open the "Clone Repository" wizard in the IDE:
    • Menu bar -> "Team" -> "Git" -> "Clone..." or
    • Menu bar -> "Team" -> "Remote" -> "Clone..."
  2. For "Repository URL:" specify
  3. Clear the "User:" and "Password:" text boxes.
  4. For "Clone into:" specify a writable folder (on a local filesystem) that doesn't already contain "Minie".
  5. Click on the "Next >" button.
  6. Make sure the "master" remote branch is checked.
  7. Click on the "Next >" button again.
  8. Make sure the Checkout Branch is set to "master".
  9. Make sure the "Scan for NetBeans Projects after Clone" box is checked.
  10. Click on the "Finish" button.
  11. When the "Clone Completed" dialog appears, click on the "Open Project..." button.
  12. Expand the root project node to reveal the sub-projects.
  13. Select both sub-projects using control-click, then click on the "Open" button.

Build the project

  1. In the "Projects" window of the IDE, right-click on the "MinieExamples" sub-project to select it.
  2. Select "Build".

How to add Minie to an existing project

Adding Minie to an existing JME3 project should be a simple 6-step process:

  1. Remove any existing physics libraries which might interfere with Minie.
  2. Add libraries to the classpath.
  3. Create, configure, and attach a BulletAppState, if the application doesn't already do so.
  4. Configure the PhysicsSpace, if the application doesn't already do so.
  5. Create physics controls, collision objects, and joints and add them to the PhysicsSpace, if the application doesn't already do so.
  6. Test and tune as necessary.

Remove any existing physics libraries

Minie replaces (and is therefore incompatible with) the following jMonkeyEngine libraries:

  • jme3-bullet
  • jme3-bullet-native
  • jme3-jbullet

Before adding Minie, you should remove these libraries from your project so they won't interfere with Minie.

For Gradle projects

Look for artifacts with these names in the dependencies section of your project's file and remove them.

For Ant projects

Open the project's properties in the IDE (JME 3.2 SDK or NetBeans 8.2):

  1. Right-click on the project (not its assets) in the "Projects" window.
  2. Select "Properties to open the "Project Properties" dialog.
  3. Under "Categories:" select "Libraries".
  4. Click on the "Compile" tab.
  5. Look for libraries with these names in the "Compile-time Libraries" listbox. Select them and click on the "Remove" button.
  6. Click on the "OK" button to exit the "Project Properties" dialog.

Add libraries to the classpath

Minie comes pre-built as a single library that includes both Java classes and native libraries. The Minie library depends on 2 Jme3-utilities libraries (jme3-utilities-heart and jme3-utilities-debug) which in turn depend on 3 of the standard jMonkeyEngine libraries (jme3-core, jme3-effects, and jme3-terrain).

For Gradle projects

For projects built using Maven or Gradle, it is sufficient to specify the dependency on the Minie library. The build tools should automatically resolve the remaining dependencies automatically.

Because Minie is not on JCenter yet, you have to explicitly specify the repository location:

repositories {
    maven { url '' }
dependencies {
    compile 'jme3utilities:Minie:0.6.5'

For Ant projects

For project built using Ant, download the 3 non-standard libraries from GitHub:

You'll want all 3 class JARs and probably the -sources and -javadoc JARs as well.

Open the project's properties in the IDE (JME 3.2 SDK or NetBeans 8.2):

  1. Right-click on the project (not its assets) in the "Projects" window.
  2. Select "Properties to open the "Project Properties" dialog.
  3. Under "Categories:" select "Libraries".
  4. Click on the "Compile" tab.
  5. Add the jme3-utilities-heart class JAR:
    • Click on the "Add JAR/Folder" button.
    • Navigate to the "jme3-utilities" project folder.
    • Open the "heart" sub-project folder.
    • Navigate to the "build/libs" folder.
    • Select the "jme3-utilities-heart-2.18.0.jar" file.
    • Click on the "Open" button.
  6. (optional) Add JARs for javadoc and sources:
    • Click on the "Edit" button.
    • Click on the "Browse..." button to the right of "Javadoc:"
    • Select the "jme3-utilities-heart-2.18.0-javadoc.jar" file.
    • Click on the "Open" button.
    • Click on the "Browse..." button to the right of "Sources:"
    • Select the "jme3-utilities-heart-2.18.0-sources.jar" file.
    • Click on the "Open" button again.
    • Click on the "OK" button to close the "Edit Jar Reference" dialog.
  7. Similarly, add the jme3-utilities-debug JAR(s).
  8. Similarly, add the Minie JAR(s).
  9. Click on the "OK" button to exit the "Project Properties" dialog.

Create, configure, and attach a BulletAppState

Strictly speaking, a BulletAppState isn't required for Minie, but it does provide a convenient interface for configuring, accessing, and debugging a PhysicsSpace.

If your application already has a BulletAppState, the code will probably work fine with Minie. If not, here is a snippet to guide you:

    BulletAppState bulletAppState = new BulletAppState();
    bulletAppState.setDebugEnabled(true); // default=false

Configure the PhysicsSpace

Section to be written.

Create physics controls, collision objects, and joints

Section to be written.

Test and tune

Section to be written.

Choosing a collision shape

Minie provides more than a dozen CollisionShape subclasses. Because jMonkeyEngine models are composed of triangular meshes, beginners are often tempted to use mesh-based shapes (such as GImpactCollisionShape) for everything. However, since mesh-based collision detection is CPU-intensive, primitive convex shapes (such as boxes and spheres) are usually a better choice, even if they don't match the model's shape exactly. In particular, CapsuleCollisionShape is often used with humanoid models.

if (the object isn't involved in collisions) {
    use an EmptyShape
} else if (its shape can be approximated by an infinite plane) {
    use a PlaneCollisionShape
} else if (its shape can be approximated by a triangle or a tetrahedron) {
    use a SimplexCollisionShape
} else if (its shape can be approximated by a centered sphere) {
    use a SphereCollisionShape
} else if (its shape can be approximated by a centered rectangular solid) {
    use a BoxCollisionShape
} else if (its shape can be approximated by a centered capsule) {
    use a CapsuleCollisionShape
} else if (its shape can be approximated by a centered cylinder) {
    use a CylinderCollisionShape
} else if (its shape can be approximated by a centered cone) {
    use a ConeCollisionShape
} else if (its shape can be approximated by an ellipsoid
            or an eccentric sphere
            or an eccentric capsule
            or the convex hull of multiple spheres) {
    use a MultiSphere
} else if (its shape can be approximated by an eccentric rectangular solid
            or an eccentric cylinder
            or an eccentric cone
            or a combination of convex primitives) {
        use a CompoundCollisionShape
} else if (the object does not move) {
    if (it is a 2-D heightfield) {
        use a HeightfieldCollisionShape
    } else {
        use a MeshCollisionShape
} else { // if the object moves
    if (its shape can be approximated by the convex hull of a mesh) {
        use a HullCollisionShape
    } else {
        use a GImpactCollisionShape

(Pseudocode adapted from the flowchart on page 13 of the Bullet User Manual.)

An Introduction to DynamicAnimControl

The centerpiece of Minie is DynamicAnimControl, a new PhysicsControl. Adding a DynamicAnimControl to an animated model provides ragdoll physics and inverse kinematics.

Configuration of DynamicAnimControl mostly takes place before the Control is added to a model Spatial. Adding the Control to a Spatial automatically creates the ragdoll, including rigid bodies and joints. No ragdoll exists before the Control is added to a Spatial, and removing a Control from its controlled Spatial destroys the ragdoll.

The controlled Spatial must include the model's SkeletonControl. Usually this is the model's root Spatial, but not always. For a very simple example, see

A model's ragdoll is composed of rigid bodies joined by 6-DOF joints. Within the Control, each PhysicsRigidBody is represented by a PhysicsLink, and the links are organized into a tree hierarchy.

PhysicsLink has 3 subclasses:

  • BoneLink: manages one or more bones in the model’s Skeleton. Each BoneLink has a parent link, to which it is jointed. Its parent may be another BoneLink or it may be a TorsoLink.
  • TorsoLink: is always the root of a link hierarchy, so it has no parent link. It manages all root bones in the model's Skeleton. It also manages any Skeleton bones that aren't managed by a BoneLink.
  • AttachmentLink: manages a non-animated model that's attached to the main model by means of an attachment Node. An AttachmentLink cannot be the parent of a link.

The default constructor for DynamicAnimControl is configured to create a ragdoll with no bone links, only a TorsoLink. Before adding the Control to a Spatial, specify which Skeleton bones should be linked, by invoking the link() method for each of those bones.

I recommend starting with a default LinkConfig and a generous range of motion for each linked bone:, new LinkConfig(), new RangeOfMotion(1f, 1f, 1f));

For a simple example, see

You probably don't want to link every Bone. For instance, if the model has articulated fingers, you probably want to link the hand bones but not the individual finger bones. Unlinked bones will be managed by the nearest linked ancestor Bone. The TorsoLink will manage any bones for which no ancestor Bone is linked. If you link too many bones, the ragdoll may become inflexible or jittery due to collisions between rigid bodies that don't share a PhysicsJoint.

External links

YouTube videos about Minie:


Like most projects, the Minie Project builds on the work of many who have gone before. I therefore acknowledge the following artists and software developers:

I am grateful to JFrog and Github for providing free hosting for the Minie Project and many other open-source projects.

I'm also grateful to my dear Holly, for keeping me sane.

If I've misattributed anything or left anyone out, please let me know so I can correct the situation: