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PyTorch code for our EMNLP 2020 paper:

PRover: Proof Generation for Interpretable Reasoning over Rules

Swarnadeep Saha, Sayan Ghosh, Shashank Srivastava, and Mohit Bansal


This repository is tested on Python 3.8.3.
You should install PRover on a virtual environment. All dependencies can be installed as follows:

pip install -r requirements.txt

Download Dataset

Download the dataset as follows:

bash scripts/

Training PRover

PRover can be trained by running the following script:

bash scripts/

This will train PRover on the depth-5 dataset. Should you wish to train on any of depth-0, depth-1, etc, change the data_dir path in the script accordingly.
The trained model folder will be saved inside output folder.

Testing PRover

The trained PRover model can be tested by running the following script:

bash scripts/

This will output the QA accuracy, save the node predictions at prediction_nodes_dev.lst and the predicted edge logits at prediction_edge_logits_dev.lst.

Running ILP Inference

Once the node predictions and the edge logits are saved, you can run ILP inference to get edge predictions as follows:

bash scripts/

This will save the edge predictions inside the model folder.


Once QA, node and edge predictions are saved, you can compute all metrics (QA accuracy, Node accuracy, Edge accuracy, Proof accuracy and Full accuracy) as follows:

bash scripts/

Zero-shot Evaluation on Birds-Electricity

Run the above testing, inference and evaluation scripts to test the depth-5 trained PRover model on the Birds-Electricity dataset by appropriately changing the data-dir path to data/birds-electricity in all the scripts and lines 187 and 188 in with test.jsonl and meta-test.jsonl.

Training PRover on ParaRules dataset

Run the following scripts to train PRover on the ParaRules dataset (following similar steps as before):

bash scripts/
bash scripts/
bash scripts/
bash scripts/

Running Other Ablations

Ablation models from the paper can be run by uncommenting parts of the code (like choosing a particular depth). Please refer to the comments in for details.

Trained Models

We also release our trained models on depth-5 dataset and ParaRules dataset here. These contain the respective QA, node and edge predictions and you can reproduce the results from the paper by running the evaluation script.

Visualizing Proofs

The script to visualize PRover's proof graphs as pdfs is evaluation/ It takes the usual arguments (data directory, node and prediction files) along with a path to the directoty to save the graphs.


  title={PRover: Proof Generation for Interpretable Reasoning over Rules},
  author={Saha, Swarnadeep and Ghosh, Sayan and Srivastava, Shashank and Bansal, Mohit},


[EMNLP 2020] PyTorch code of PRover: Proof Generation for Interpretable Reasoning over Rules




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