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This is Ruby interface for Z3 [ ].

Minimum required version is Z3 4.8.

It's in very early stages of development. Pull requests always welcome.


The public interface is various methods in Z3 module, and on objects created by it. examples/ directory is probably the best place to start.

You can use most Ruby operators to construct Z3 expressions, but use | & instead of || && for boolean operators. They unfortunately have wrong operator precedence so you'll need to use some extra parentheses.

The interface is potentially unstable, and can change in the future.

Z3::VeryLowLevel and Z3::LowLevel are FFI interfaces for internal use, and they shouldn't be used directly. Also don't use any method starting with _. Doing this is likely to lead to segmentation faults unless extreme care is taken.

A utility at api/gen_api will loop through a .h file and generate Ruby definitions. This will update the API when upstream changes z3_api.h


brew install z3
rake gem:build
bundle install
rake spec

Known Issues

As Z3 is a C library, doing anything weird with it will segfault your process. Ruby API tries its best to prevent such problems and turn them into exceptions instead, but if you do anything weird (especially touch any method prefixed with _ or Z3::LowLevel interface), crashes are possible. If you have reproducible crash on reasonable looking code, definitely submit it as a bug, and I'll try to come up with a workaround.

As Z3 mixes aggressively interning ASTs and reference counting, it's not very compatible with Ruby style memory management, so memory will leak a good deal. It's usually not much worse than the usual Symbol memory leak, but you might want to avoid Z3 in a long running processes exposed to public input.

Python examples

Some of example solvers also have Python versions available from


Ruby bindings for Z3 constraint solver library



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