Join GitHub today
GitHub is home to over 28 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.Sign up
London school TDD
This school of TDD was derived from years of practice in the Extreme Programming community in London. It describes an entirely different approach to test-driven development from its predecessor, the more prevalent Detroit-school. Many of the concepts were first published (to my knowledge) in a paper at XP 2000.
I can't speak for the GOOS's authors, Nat Pryce and Steve Freeman, so this article and other descriptions of "London" TDD only represent my derivative iterations on the concepts and themes they first published in their book. Furthermore, so that I'm not putting too many words in their mouths, my approach to London-school testing will be documented in Discovery Testing.
What is it?
London-school TDD is a name given to an approach to using test-driven development to build systems that consistently arrive at clean, minimal designs of small, focused units of code (for more, see Tests' Influence on Design). It shares many characteristics with Detroit-school TDD, but differs significantly enough to warrant conceptualizing it as a separate methodology. Moreover, many terms and concepts familiar in Detroit-school are commonly overloaded when discussing London-school testing, which has been the source of endless confusion among developers.
Because a London-school unit test suite only provides regression safety of each unit in isolation, it's typically necessary to have a second, minimal suite of end-to-end tests that validate the system works when everything is wired up and integrated. It's that integrated test which buys the developers the luxury of writing tightly focused isolation tests of each unit.
Comparison to Detroit-school TDD
Many comparisons between the two schools of thinking can be summarized as "top-down" versus "bottom-up". Where London-school TDD encourages programmers to use external constraints as a starting point (an API endpoint, an HTTP controller, etc.), Detroit-school TDD encourages programmers to first identify the core domain logic that exemplifies the work without concern for how it might be integrated elsewhere.
Typically, systems designed with Detroit-school TDD demonstrate greater emphasis on design patterns, object-oriented design, and domain-driven design. The greatest risk posed by this approach is YAGNI resulting from APIs that wind up being a poor fit for the integrated code that would actually call it (e.g. mismatched parameters, differing return types, etc.)
Whereas systems written with a Detroit-school TDD method might demonstrate a number of creative patterns of object design & organization, systems designed with London-school TDD tend to produce very homogeneous trees of objects and functions of a handful of types (collaborators which interact with subordinate dependencies, pure functions, wrappers of third-party code, and value types). London-school TDD is commonly referred to as a gateway drug to functional programming, because it encourages separating code with side effects and maximizing pure functions.
Design influence on implementations
An interesting consequence of practicing London-school TDD is that the design of each unit is not only heavily-influenced by its test and the overall testing workflow, but that the shape of each unit will typically resemble one of a handful of archetypes. Incidentally, each of these archetypical object patterns have some favorable design characteristics (e.g. adhering to command-query separation, maximizing pure functions, smaller units).
The reason that London-school TDD can influence the design of the implementation is because unit tests have far more awareness of the subject's dependencies and their interactions. In Detroit-school, if an "object is hard to test, then it's hard to use"; in London-school, if a "dependency is hard to mock, then it's definitely hard to use for the object that'll actually be using it." Put differently, Detroit-school TDD can only provide feedback about how comfortable it is to use an API in the sometimes contrived circumstance of a unit test, whereas London-school TDD routinely provides feedback about whether each unit's usage is awkward under real-world conditions.
Increased refactoring cost
A common criticism of London-school test suites is that the cost to refactor implementations of a unit is increased.
While unit types whose tests don't use test doubles (like Value and Logic units) are no different to refactor than Detroit-school units, types with mocked-out dependencies (like Collaborator and Signaler) require significantly more effort to refactor significantly.
Because many collaboration tests use test doubles to specify the contract of a dependency, the cost of refactoring a design is sometimes dramatically increased (which is why Discovery Testing encourages targeted rewrites instead, with refactoring as an exceptional activity).