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Tutorial style walkthrough:
The terminal application that we run
You also have one called "Terminal"
Directories (folders... but use the word "directory")
~ The home directory (where your Desktop and Downloads are)
. The current directory (the output of pwd)
.. The parent directory (you had to go through it to get to current location)
/ The root directory, highest directory in your computer.
~/Downloads Within the home directory, a directory named Downloads
Other notes:
Many programs output nothing if they succeed (e.g. cp)
Configuration for bash (e.g. shell colours) is in ~/.bash_profile (edit this with atom)
Unix program examples
bash The "shell", the default program that lets us interact with the computer (when we are typing commands, we are in the shell)
pwd "Print Working Directory", our current location in file system
ls List files in our directory
ls ~ List files in other/dir
ls -l List files in long-format
l List files with all the custom options we set up for you
touch notes Makes an empty file called "notes"
rm notes Remove the file called "notes"
which ruby Tell me where the ruby program is located
cp .pryrc ~/.pryrc Copy the file "./.pryrc" in the current directory to "~/.pryrc" (ie copy from current dir to home dir)
cp .pryrc ~/.pryrc Move the file "./.pryrc" in the current directory to "~/.pryrc"
mv program program.rb This move renames the file
mkdir deleteme Makes a directory named "deleteme"
cd ~/deleteme Change Directories to "deleteme" within the home directory
echo a b c Print the arguments (will print "a b c")
env List out all your environment variables
cat ~/.bash_profile Prints the contents of your bash profile
Other programs
ruby my_program.rb Run the Ruby interpreter against the file "my_program.rb" in the current directory
gem install pry Install the pry gem (program and code that we can now use)
brew install git Use the homebrew program to install the git program
rvm use 2.1.2 Tell rvm that I want my Ruby to be 2.1.2, it will change the environment to make this true (assuming its installed)
git log Show every time I committed my code (think of this like every place the program was saved) -- this would need to be run inside of a git repository
pry Launch pry, a repl that's better than irb
atom . Open my current directory in the Atom text editor
Bash script (programming language you can type in the shell -- the same place you enter the programs to run)
a=1 Set the variable a to have the value 1 (`a = 1` would be "invoke the program a, giving it the arguments "=" and "1")
export a=1 Set the environment variable a to have the value 1 -- Environment variables are available to programs you run
alias l="ls -lFGgohq" When I type "l", the shell translates that to "ls -lFGgohq", so I don't have to remember those flags
source ~/.bash_profile Execute the code in my home directory's bash_profile
type gs Tell me what gs is (like which, but will also tell you about aliases and functions)
Playing with inputs and outputs
Every program has one input, called the "standard input", often abbreviated as "stdin"
By default, this is connected to your keyboard. For example:
$ ruby -e 'puts "You said: #{gets.inspect}!"'
This program will wait for you to enter a value on the keyboard, then print it out.
You can override stdin with "<", to instead pull from a file.
$ ruby -e 'puts "You said: #{gets.inspect}!"' < ~/.bash_profile
Every program has two outputs, the "standard output" (stdout) and the "standard error" (stderr)
By default, both of these are set to display on your screen
You can override stdout with ">", and stderr with "2>" to instead write to a flie
$ ruby -e '$stdout.puts("hello"); $stder.puts("world")'
$ ruby -e '$stdout.puts("hello"); $stder.puts("world")' > f
$ cat f
$ ruby -e '$stdout.puts("hello"); $stder.puts("world")' 2> f
$ cat f
$ ruby -e '$stdout.puts("hello"); $stder.puts("world")' > f1 2> f2
$ cat f1
$ cat f2
$ rm f f1 f2
You can connect one program's output to another program's input with a "pipe"
$ echo world
$ echo world | ruby -e 'puts "hello, #{gets}"'