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⚠️ The Ribbit version that can compile the R4RS compliant repl in 7KB is available on the dev branch for now. It will be merged with the main branch shortly. ⚠️

Ribbit

A small, portable and extensible Scheme implementation that supports closures, tail calls, first-class continuations, a REPL and AOT and incremental compilers. All that for a run time footprint around 4 KB!

Ribbit currently supports 9 targets such as JavaScript, Assembly (x86), C, Python and POSIX Shell, with more to come !

For more information about Ribbit, you can look at our papers in the paper section or check out all supported targets

Try it now !

You can try the REPL with a minimal library here or try a more featureful version here.

Please note that currently the incremental compiler used by the REPL only supports a subset of the Scheme special forms. In particular procedure definitions should use the syntax (define name (lambda ...)) . The AOT compiler supports more features including the forms quote, lambda, define, set!, if, cond, and, or, begin, let, let*, letrec, and named let.


Usage

The Ribbit AOT compiler is written in Scheme and can be executed with Gambit, Guile, Chicken and Kawa. It has been tested with Gambit v4.7.5 and above. For the best experience install Gambit from https://github.com/gambit/gambit .

There are also prebuilt versions of the Ribbit AOT compiler in the prebuilt directory, allowing the AOT compiler to be executed using another language interpreter, such as nodejs, CPython, and even just a POSIX shell.

The AOT compiler's source code is in a single file: src/rsc.scm . This Scheme file can be executed as a program with the Gambit, Guile, Chicken or Kawa interpreters. Alternatively the AOT compiler can be executed using the src/rsc shell script, which has the additional -c option to select a specific build of the Ribbit AOT compiler which is useful for bootstrapping Ribbit or to execute one of the prebuilt versions.

Ribbit currently supports the target languages C, JavaScript, Python, Scheme, Haskell, Lua, Assembly (x86), Ocaml and POSIX shell which are selectable with the compiler's -t option with c, js, py, scm, hs, lua, asm, ml, and sh respectively. The compacted RVM code can be obtained with the target rvm which is the default.

The -m option causes a minification of the generated program. This requires a recent version of Gambit.

The -l option allows selecting the Scheme runtime library (located in the lib subdirectory). The min library has the fewest procedures and a REPL that supports the core Scheme forms only. The max library has most of the R4RS predefined procedures, except for file I/O. The max-tc library is like max but with run time type checking. The default is the max-tc library.

Here are a few examples (all assume that a cd src has been done first):

Use the Gambit interpreter to compile the minimal REPL to Python
and execute with python3:

  $ ./rsc -t py -l min repl-min.scm
  $ echo "(define f (lambda (n) (if (< n 2) n (+ (f (- n 1)) (f (- n 2))))))(f 25)" | python3 repl-min.scm.py
  > 0
  > 75025
  >

Alternatively one of the prebuilt versions can be used to achieve the
same result:

  $ ./rsc -t py -l min -c "node prebuilt/rsc.js"       repl-min.scm
  $ ./rsc -t py -l min -c "python3 prebuilt/rsc.py"    repl-min.scm
  $ ./rsc -t py -l min -c "runhaskell prebuilt/rsc.hs" repl-min.scm
  $ ./rsc -t py -l min -c "lua prebuilt/rsc.lua"       repl-min.scm
  $ ./rsc -t py -l min -c "scala prebuilt/rsc.scala"   repl-min.scm
  $ ./rsc -t py -l min -c "ksh prebuilt/rsc.sh"        repl-min.scm
  $ gcc -o rsc.exe prebuilt/rsc.c
  $ ./rsc -t py -l min -c ./rsc.exe                    repl-min.scm

Do the same but generating a JavaScript program:

  $ ./rsc -t js -l min repl-min.scm

Use Guile instead of Gambit to compile the REPL with type checking to C
and then compile RVM with gcc:

  $ RSC_SCHEME_INTERPRETER=guile ./rsc -t c -l max-tc repl-max.scm
  $ gcc repl-max.scm.c
  $ echo "(+ 1 (* 2 3))(car 0)" | ./a.out
  > 7
  > *** type error ()
  >

You can also use RSC_SCHEME_INTERPRETER=kawa to use Kawa Scheme or
RSC_SCHEME_INTERPRETER="csi -s" to use Chicken Scheme.

Use the Gambit compiler to compile the AOT compiler and then use it:

  $ gsc -exe -o rsc-gambit.exe rsc.scm
  $ ./rsc -t c -c ./rsc-gambit.exe repl-max.scm

Use the Chicken compiler to compile the AOT compiler and then use it:

  $ csc -o rsc-chicken.exe -O2 rsc.scm
  $ ./rsc -t c -c ./rsc-chicken.exe repl-max.scm

Use Ribbit as a pipeline compiler to compile the trivial program
`(putchar 65) (putchar 10)` to the corresponding compacted RVM code
(only 23 bytes of code):

  $ echo "(putchar 65) (putchar 10)" | gsi rsc.scm
  );'u?>vR6!(:lkm!':lkv6y

Use Ribbit as a pipeline compiler to compile the trivial program
`(putchar 65) (putchar 10)` to compacted RVM code and combine
it with the Python implementation of the RVM and execute it with python3:

  $ echo "(putchar 65) (putchar 10)" | ./rsc -l empty -t py | python3
  A

Compile the Ribbit AOT compiler using itself to get a JavaScript
version of the compiler and use it to compile a program:

  $ ./rsc -t js -l max rsc.scm   # compile rsc.scm to rsc.scm.js
  $ echo '(display "hello!\n")' > h.scm
  $ ./rsc -t py -l max -c "node rsc.scm.js" h.scm # use bootstrapped compiler
  $ python3 h.scm.py
  hello!

Bootstrap the Ribbit AOT compiler using a POSIX shell (note
that with ksh this takes over 5 hours on a fast computer and it
can take substantially more with other POSIX shells):

  $ ./rsc -t sh -l max -o rsc-bootstrap1.sh rsc.scm
  $ ./rsc -t sh -l max -c "ksh rsc-bootstrap1.sh" -o rsc-bootstrap2.sh rsc.scm
  $ echo '(display "hello!\n")' > h.scm
  $ ./rsc -t sh -l max -m -c "ksh rsc-bootstrap2.sh" h.scm
  $ ksh h.scm.sh
  hello!

The makefile in the src directory has these make targets:

  $ make check                     # check proper operation for all hosts

  $ HOST=c make check              # check proper operation for specific host

  $ HOST=py PY_HOST_INTERPRETER=pypy make check  # check proper operation for specific host and interpreter

  $ make check-bootstrap           # check that rsc bootstraps

  $ HOST=py make check-bootstrap   # check that rsc bootstraps with specific host

  $ HOST=sh SH_HOST_INTERPRETER=ksh make check-bootstrap # check that rsc bootstraps with specific host and interpreter

  $ make prebuilt                  # creates prebuilt artifacts for all hosts

Supported targets

Host\feature Supported Markup complete Arity feature
py YES missing location YES
js YES YES YES
c YES missing location YES
asm YES missing location YES
sh YES missing location YES
scm YES missing location YES
hs YES missing location
lua YES missing location
ml YES missing location
rs NO
go NO
idr NO
scala NO
rb NO
java NO

Research and papers

We are actively developing Ribbit. If you have an idea, you can reach out to @leo-ard or @feeley.

About

A small and portable Scheme implementation with AOT and incremental compilers that fits in 4K. It supports closures, tail calls, first-class continuations and a REPL.

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